Sub-theme 3: Content
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams
Centre for Innovation in Learning & Teaching (CILT)
University of Cape Tow...
Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER,
Open Textbooks and MOOCs in the
Global South
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams
OER Asia 2nd Reg...
Key challenges facing education in the
Global South
Growing numbers of students in
the education sector
http://commons.wik...
Key enablers of change
• Internet connectivity
• Alternative licencing systems
• Emerging open practices in
many areas (op...
2000 - 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Open education
Online distance
learning
Open education
resources
Open
conte...
Learning Objects
“Raw” Data
Media Elements
Audio
Text
Illustration
Animation
Simulation
Objective
Adapted by Hodgkinson-Wi...
Learning object example: A graphic
Hodgkinson-Williams & Brown 2014 https://vula.uct.ac.za/x/KWvsvP
Learning Objects
Open Educational Resources
“Raw” Data
Media Elements
Information
Objects
Application Objects
(Learning Ob...
Open content / OER example:
A presentation
Cox & Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 https://vula.uct.ac.za/x/ZIw1tw
Learning Objects
Open Educational Resources
Open textbooks
“Raw” Data
Media Elements
Information
Objects
Application Objec...
Open textbook example: A chapter
Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1leRfNgnz0ywAsG6hWqU7uSoKs8g8...
Learning Objects
Open Educational Resources
Open textbooks
MOOCs
“Raw” Data
Media Elements
Information
Objects
Application...
MOOC example: An online course
(planned)
Cycle of Open Education?
• Can we think more broadly of a cycle of Open
Education – including the spectrum of open
materia...
OER cycle: Example 1
http://wikieducator.org/OER_Handbook/educator/Introduction/Why_OER%3F
OER cycle: Example 2
See p 99-
100 in the
Proceedings
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Copy
Critique
Creation cycl...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Creation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
The conceptualization phase
includes...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
Creation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
The creation phase refers to ...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create Curate
Creation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
The curation step refe...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create CirculateCurate
Creation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
The circulati...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CirculateCurate
Adaptation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
The ...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Customise
Curate
Adaptation cycle
Cheryl Hodgkinson-...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Adaptation cycle
Cheryl Hod...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
Re-circulate
Combine
Customise
Re-curate
Copy
Critique
Creation cycle...
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Copy
Adaptation cycle
Chery...
Re-circulateRe-curate
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Copy
...
Re-circulateRe-curate
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Copy
...
Re-circulateRe-curate
10C Open Education Cycle
Conceptualise
Create
LoCate
CertifyCirculate
Combine
Customise
Curate
Copy
...
Factors and degrees of ease
influencing the OE Cycle
PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS
Degree of ease of OE process
Copy CreateCustomise Combine
Curate Re-curate
Circulate Re-circulate
Easy
Difficult
TECHNICAL...
TECHNICAL factors
Interoperability
& Formats
Closed Open
Technical skills
& resources
Little or no
competence
Competent
Fe...
TECHNICAL factors influencing the degree of
ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle
Conceptualise
Create Interopera...
TECHNICAL factors involved in degree of
ease in adopting a learning object
TECHNICAL profile:
Interoperability & Formats
•...
TECHNICAL factors influencing the degree of ease
of adoption at each stage of this learning object
Conceptualise
Create In...
LEGAL factors
Open licensing
knowledge
Uninformed Well-informed
Open licensing
advice
No legal advice
available
Legal advi...
Degrees of openness
LEGAL factors influencing the degree of ease of
adoption at each stage of the OE cycle
Conceptualise
Create Open licensing...
LEGAL factors involved in degree of ease
in adopting an OER
LEGAL profile:
Open Licencing knowledge
• Knowledge of use of ...
Legal factors influencing the degree of ease of
adoption at each stage of this OER
Conceptualise
Create Open licensing kno...
Cultural factors
Knowledge Homogenous Diverse
Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous
CULTURAL factors influencing the degree of ease
of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle
Conceptualise
Create
Knowledge H...
CULTURAL factors influencing the
degree of ease in adopting an
Open Textbook
CULTURAL profile:
Knowledge
• Knowledge of ph...
CULTURAL factors influencing the degree of ease
of adoption at each stage of this Open Textbook
Conceptualise
Create
Knowl...
PEDAGOGICAL factors
Type of
engagement
F2F Fully online
Pedagogic
strategy
Didactic Experiential
Learning
response
Respond...
PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the degree of
ease of adoption at each state of the OE cycle
Conceptualise
Type of engagem...
PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the
degree of ease in adopting an hybrid
online course – as an OER
PEDAGOGICAL profile:
Ty...
PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the degree of
ease of adoption at each stage of this open
online course
Conceptualise
Type...
FINANCIAL factors
Cost to user Least affordable Most
affordable
Charged Small charge Subscription
fee
Contribution
in kind...
FINANCIAL factors influencing the degree of
ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle
Conceptualise Cost to creator/s...
FINANCIAL factors influencing the
degree of ease in adopting this course
as a MOOC
FINANCIAL profile:
Cost to creator
• Ti...
FINANCIAL factors influencing the degree of ease of
adoption at each stage of this planned MOOC
Conceptualise Cost to crea...
PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution
4.0 International License.
Written by Cheryl Hodgkinson-William...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License.
Contact author:
cheryl.hodgkinson-wi...
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Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, Open Textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South

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Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams' Keynote presentation slides for 2nd Regional Symposium on Open Educational Resources (OER). Presentation title: Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, Open Textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South

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Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, Open Textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South

  1. 1. Sub-theme 3: Content Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams Centre for Innovation in Learning & Teaching (CILT) University of Cape Town (UCT) www.slideshare.com/cilt_UCT
  2. 2. Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, Open Textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams OER Asia 2nd Regional Symposium Penang, Malaysia 24-27 June 2014
  3. 3. Key challenges facing education in the Global South Growing numbers of students in the education sector http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APCoE_students_at_AICTE_Regional_Office_in_Mumbai.jpg Increasing financial pressure being exerted on education institutions Increasing demand for the provision of quality education Limited and/or expensive teaching and learning resources, including textbooks Employability of graduates
  4. 4. Key enablers of change • Internet connectivity • Alternative licencing systems • Emerging open practices in many areas (open source software, open access journals, open data, social media, open education declarations as well as “less legal” practices such as sharing music)
  5. 5. 2000 - 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Open education Online distance learning Open education resources Open content Connectivist MOOC (cMOOCs) iTunes U, Khan Academy Open source software Learning management systems MIT – Open Courseware Consortium Open University - OpenLearn Stanford xMOOCs Udacity Coursera MITx edX FutureLearn NovoEd OpenUp Ed Open to Study Open Universities Australia Directly related An influence Learning objects Open Textbooks Adapted by Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 from UNESCO 2013 Cape Town OE Declaration Paris OER Declaration
  6. 6. Learning Objects “Raw” Data Media Elements Audio Text Illustration Animation Simulation Objective Adapted by Hodgkinson-Williams & Carstens 2014 from Hodgins originally repurposed with permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity A learning object can be described as a collection of content items, practice items and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective. The term “learning objects” is credited to Wayne Hodgins when he created a working group in 1994 bearing the name, although the concept was first described by Gerard as far back as 1967.
  7. 7. Learning object example: A graphic Hodgkinson-Williams & Brown 2014 https://vula.uct.ac.za/x/KWvsvP
  8. 8. Learning Objects Open Educational Resources “Raw” Data Media Elements Information Objects Application Objects (Learning Objects) Audio Text Illustration Animation Simulation Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Adapted by Hodgkinson-Williams & Carstens 2014 from Hodgins originally repurposed with permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity Open Content
  9. 9. Open content / OER example: A presentation Cox & Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 https://vula.uct.ac.za/x/ZIw1tw
  10. 10. Learning Objects Open Educational Resources Open textbooks “Raw” Data Media Elements Information Objects Application Objects (Learning Objects) Aggregate Assemblies (Lessons, Chapters, etc.) Audio Text Illustration Animation Simulation Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Adapted by Hodgkinson-Williams & Carstens 2014 from Hodgins originally repurposed with permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity Open Content
  11. 11. Open textbook example: A chapter Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 https://docs.google.com/document/d/1leRfNgnz0ywAsG6hWqU7uSoKs8g8FeEBaoRhiFSa30 8/edit?usp=sharing
  12. 12. Learning Objects Open Educational Resources Open textbooks MOOCs “Raw” Data Media Elements Information Objects Application Objects (Learning Objects) Aggregate Assemblies (Lessons, Chapters, etc.) Collections (Courses, etc.) Audio Text Illustration Animation Simulation Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Procedure Principle Concept Process Fact Overview Summary Objective Adapted by Hodgkinson-Williams & Carstens 2014 from Hodgins originally repurposed with permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity Open Content
  13. 13. MOOC example: An online course (planned)
  14. 14. Cycle of Open Education? • Can we think more broadly of a cycle of Open Education – including the spectrum of open materials and practices?
  15. 15. OER cycle: Example 1 http://wikieducator.org/OER_Handbook/educator/Introduction/Why_OER%3F
  16. 16. OER cycle: Example 2
  17. 17. See p 99- 100 in the Proceedings
  18. 18. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Copy Critique Creation cycle Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal
  19. 19. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Creation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 The conceptualization phase includes the curriculum planning of what exactly is needed for whom and an awareness of Open Education before a decision is made to create, copy, customise or combine materials and/or tuitionAdaptation cycle
  20. 20. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create Creation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 The creation phase refers to the development of original materials and/or tuition by the author or institution either as a “self-use” of existing materials or “born open” OER, i.e. developed with the view of being shared freely and openly.
  21. 21. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create Curate Creation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 The curation step refers to the preservation or storage of the materials and/or tuition that includes sufficient descriptive information (i.e. metadata) and appropriate open licensing (e.g. Creative Commons)
  22. 22. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create CirculateCurate Creation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 The circulation step refers to the hosting of these on a publicly accessible platform with appropriate open licensing and metadata
  23. 23. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CirculateCurate Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 The slightly artificially coined “loCate” step refers to the ease of finding and discovering OE materials and/or tuition
  24. 24. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Customise Curate Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal The customise step refers to the localising or adapting of the materials and/or tuition
  25. 25. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 idealThe combine step refers to the decomposing, re-mixing and re-assembling of materials and/or tuition in accordance with the open licence that the original author or institution selected
  26. 26. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate Re-circulate Combine Customise Re-curate Copy Critique Creation cycle Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal Whether the materials have been customised or combined with other materials, ideally they need to be “Re-curated” and “Re-circulated” to fulfil the “Share- Alike” licence and/or make the derivative work easy to find in order to re-use, re-customise and/or re-combine
  27. 27. 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Copy Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal The copy step allows for Open Education materials and/or tuition to be used in an unaltered manner
  28. 28. Re-circulateRe-curate 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Copy Critique Creation cycle Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal The “certify” step refers to activities around how to accredit Open Education and has been used to prompt thinking about the possible consequences for the use and/or completion of original and/or re-worked Open Education materials and/or tuition USE
  29. 29. Re-circulateRe-curate 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Copy Critique Creation cycle Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal An evaluative critique step, (also slightly artificially named so that this forms a relatively easy 10C heuristic of a suggested Open Education cycle) prompts monitoring, research and reflection on the entire Open Education cycle USE
  30. 30. Re-circulateRe-curate 10C Open Education Cycle Conceptualise Create LoCate CertifyCirculate Combine Customise Curate Copy Critique Creation cycle Adaptation cycle Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014 ideal
  31. 31. Factors and degrees of ease influencing the OE Cycle PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS
  32. 32. Degree of ease of OE process Copy CreateCustomise Combine Curate Re-curate Circulate Re-circulate Easy Difficult TECHNICAL LEGAL CULTURAL PEDAGOGICAL FINANCIAL
  33. 33. TECHNICAL factors Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Technical skills & resources Little or no competence Competent Few resources Well- resourced No or limited affordable connectivity Inexpensive connectivity Availability & discoverability Personal storage Public repository Opaque Clear Assessment mechanisms & learning analytics Lecturer support Difficult to capture Self- or peer review support Easy to capture
  34. 34. TECHNICAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle Conceptualise Create Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Technical skills Technical resources Little or no competence Few resources Competent Well-resourced Curate Circulate Availability Personal storage Public repository LoCate Copy Availability & discoverability Opaque Clear Customise Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Technical skills Technical resources Little or no competence Few resources Competent Well-resourced Combine Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Certify Assessment mechanisms Lecturer support Self- or peer review support Critique Learning analytics Difficult to capture Easy to capture
  35. 35. TECHNICAL factors involved in degree of ease in adopting a learning object TECHNICAL profile: Interoperability & Formats • Developed in MSPowerPoint Technical skills & resources • Fairly basic graphic skills • Access to MSPowerPoint Availability & discoverability • Saved on institutional LMS • Licence captured in LMS • Version not easy to establish Assessment mechanisms & learning analytics • No usage data
  36. 36. TECHNICAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of this learning object Conceptualise Create Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Technical skills Technical resources Little or no competence Few resources Competent Well-resourced Curate Circulate Availability Personal storage Public repository LoCate Copy Availability & discoverability Opaque Clear Customise Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Technical skills Technical resources Little or no competence Few resources Competent Well-resourced Combine Interoperability & Formats Closed Open Certify Critique Degree of ease Degree of difficulty
  37. 37. LEGAL factors Open licensing knowledge Uninformed Well-informed Open licensing advice No legal advice available Legal advice available & supportive of open licensing
  38. 38. Degrees of openness
  39. 39. LEGAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle Conceptualise Create Open licensing knowledge Most restrictive Most accommodating Open licensing advice No legal advice available Legal advice available Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Open licensing Most restrictive Most accommodating Customise Combine Open licensing knowledge Most restrictive Most accommodating Open licensing advice No legal advice available Legal advice available Certify Critique
  40. 40. LEGAL factors involved in degree of ease in adopting an OER LEGAL profile: Open Licencing knowledge • Knowledge of use of third party text and images • Knowledge (and skill) of re- drawing third images • Knowledge of Creative Commons licencing and when to select which licence Special legal advice • Not required in this instance
  41. 41. Legal factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of this OER Conceptualise Create Open licensing knowledge Most restrictive Most accommodating Open licensing advice No legal advice available Legal advice available Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Open licensing Most restrictive Most accommodating Customise Combine Open licensing knowledge Most restrictive Most accommodating Open licensing advice No legal advice available Legal advice available Certify Critique Degree of ease
  42. 42. Cultural factors Knowledge Homogenous Diverse Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous
  43. 43. CULTURAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle Conceptualise Create Knowledge Homogenous Diverse Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Customise Combine Certify Critique Knowledge Homogenous Diverse Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous
  44. 44. CULTURAL factors influencing the degree of ease in adopting an Open Textbook CULTURAL profile: Knowledge • Knowledge of philosophical assumptions about what constitutes valuable knowledge in Research Design – particularly differentiation between positivist, interpretivist, post- modernist and critical realist perspectives Curriculum • Knowledge of expectations of what a particular institution might require to be covered in a Research Design Course • No certification or formal evaluation of use
  45. 45. CULTURAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of this Open Textbook Conceptualise Create Knowledge Homogenous Diverse Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Customise Combine Knowledge Homogenous Diverse Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous Certify Critique Curriculum Institutionalised Autonomous Degree of ease Degree of difficulty
  46. 46. PEDAGOGICAL factors Type of engagement F2F Fully online Pedagogic strategy Didactic Experiential Learning response Responding Acting Assessment strategy Formal Informal Certification mechanisms Certification / qualification Badging Evaluation strategy Formal evidence Informal evidence
  47. 47. PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each state of the OE cycle Conceptualise Type of engagement Pedagogic strategy Learning response Assessment strategy F2F Didactic Passive Formal Online Experiential Active InformalCreate Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Customise Combine Type of engagement Pedagogic strategy Learning response Assessment strategy F2F Didactic Passive Formal Online Experiential Active Informal Certify Assessment strategy Accreditation mechanisms Formal Informal Critique Evaluation strategy Formal evidence Informal evidence
  48. 48. PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the degree of ease in adopting an hybrid online course – as an OER PEDAGOGICAL profile: Type of engagement • Hybrid Pedagogic strategy • Didactic, collaborative & experiential Learning response • Responding, collaborating, acting Assessment strategy • Peer-review and Formal grading after 2 rounds of formative feedback Certification mechanisms • Credit in a degree Evaluation • Class evaluation
  49. 49. PEDAGOGICAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of this open online course Conceptualise Type of engagement Pedagogic strategy Learning response Assessment strategy F2F Didactic Passive Formal Online Experiential Active InformalCreate Curate Circulate LoCate Copy Customise Combine Type of engagement Pedagogic strategy Learning response Assessment strategy F2F Didactic Passive Formal Online Experiential Active Informal Certify Assessment strategy Accreditation mechanisms Formal Informal Critique Evaluation strategy Formal evidence Informal evidence Degree of ease Degree of difficulty
  50. 50. FINANCIAL factors Cost to user Least affordable Most affordable Charged Small charge Subscription fee Contribution in kind User registration Free Cost to creator/s Inexpensive Very expensive Cost to institution Inexpensive Very expensive Cost to reviser/s Inexpensive Very expensive Cost to re- combiner/s Inexpensive Very expensive
  51. 51. FINANCIAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of the OE cycle Conceptualise Cost to creator/s Inexpensive Very expensive Create Cost to creator/s Inexpensive Very expensive Curate Cost to institution Inexpensive Very expensive Circulate Cost to institution Inexpensive Very expensive LoCate Cost to users Affordable Very expensive Copy Cost to users Affordable Very expensive Customise Cost to re-creators Inexpensive Very expensive Combine Cost to re-combiners Inexpensive Very expensive Certify Cost to users Inexpensive Very expensive Critique Cost to creator, institution Inexpensive Very expensive
  52. 52. FINANCIAL factors influencing the degree of ease in adopting this course as a MOOC FINANCIAL profile: Cost to creator • Time to conceptualise & create Cost to user • Opportunity cost Cost to institution • Fees to MOOC platform provider Cost to reviser • Inexpensive Cost to combiner • Relatively expensive as pedagogic work probably quite considerable
  53. 53. FINANCIAL factors influencing the degree of ease of adoption at each stage of this planned MOOC Conceptualise Cost to creator/s Inexpensive Very expensive Create Cost to creator/s Inexpensive Very expensive Curate Cost to institution Inexpensive Very expensive Circulate Cost to institution Inexpensive Very expensive LoCate Cost to users Affordable Very expensive Copy Cost to users Affordable Very expensive Customise Cost to re-creators Inexpensive Very expensive Combine Cost to re-combiners Inexpensive Very expensive Certify Cost to users Inexpensive Very expensive Critique Cost to creator, institution Inexpensive Very expensive
  54. 54. PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams 2014
  55. 55. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Written by Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams cheryl.hodgkinson-williams@uct.ac.za in 2014 Graphics by Rondine Carstens & Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams rondine.carstens@uct.ac.za Thanks to Tess Cartmill, Sukaina Walji, Henry Trotter, Thomas King and Mthunzi Nxawe for comments on the draft version
  56. 56. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Contact author: cheryl.hodgkinson-williams@uct.ac.za Follow on Twitter: http://twitter.com/cherylhw Presentations: www.slideshare.com/cilt_uct
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