The fate of Indonesia’s forest moratorium

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CIFOR scientist Daniel Murdiyarso gave this presentation on 29 November 2012 at the World Resources Institute UNFCCC COP18 side-event ‘Facts, Figures and Findings: A Dialogue on the Indonesia Moratorium’ in Doha, Qatar.

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The fate of Indonesia’s forest moratorium

  1. 1. The fate of Indonesia’s forest moratorium:Will the existing regulatory framework help?Daniel Murdiyarso (CIFOR) and Sonya Dewi (ICRAF)
  2. 2. Lawmakers: “discontinue Moratorium”• Depriving local livelihoods• Job opportunities declined• OP applicants 300, approved 70-80• To freeze reforestation budgetThe Jakarta GlobeNovember 24, 2012Forest Ministry Pushes to Continue Deforestation Moratorium, House Pushes BackIndonesian lawmakers threatened on Friday to freeze the budget for reforestationprojects if President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono continues the nation’s deforestationmoratorium until 2014……………………………
  3. 3. Outline• Introduction – Problems with definitions – Ever decreasing protected areas – Regaining C-rich forests• Thinking out-of-the-box – From primary to secondary forests – From peatland to wetlands – From area to C-density – From REDD to NAMAs• Existing regulatory framework help? – Swapping and revoking – Scrutinize conflicting regulations – Engaging lawmakers• Recommendations
  4. 4. A two-year moratorium • With some controversies • Ill-defined: primary vs natural • Includes some red carpets • Excludes (natural) secondary forests • Most of the forest land categories are already protected by law • The area to be addressed is much less but highly problematic in terms of governance
  5. 5. Indicative Moratorium Map (PIPIB)
  6. 6. Peatlands distribution in Indonesia Shallow to deep (5.8 Mha = 11 GtC) Deep to very deep (7.2 Mha = 19 GtC) Shallow to moderate (8.0 Mha = 3 GtC) 1990 2002 Global 400 Mha (528 Pg) Tropics 40 Mha (191 Pg) SE Asia 35-40 Mha 25-30 Mha Indonesia 21 Mha 17 Mha (?) (33 Pg)
  7. 7. The MRV challenges • Measuring GHG fluxes from drained peat swamp and fire emissions • Quantifying C-stocks change from forests conversions • LUCC (100,000 ha/y in 2000-2005) THINKING beyond the canopy1991
  8. 8. If extended: secondary forests Primary NaturalForest Secondary Plantation MineralSoil Peat/organic Legally defined and identifiable Secondary Legally NOT defined but identifiable forests 47 Mha
  9. 9. If extended: mangroves to be included• Indonesia has ca. 3 million ha or 23% world’s mangrove area• Deforestation rate 50,000-80,000 ha/yr• There are more mangroves in Indonesia than any continents
  10. 10. Not recommended for a picnic
  11. 11. MangroveMangroves Area Islands Primary Secondary Total (ha) % (ha) % (ha) %and distribution Papua 1,166,406 45.6 78,682 3.1 1,245,088 48.6 Kalimantan 57,532 2.2 442,119 17.3 499,651 19.5Papua, Kalimantan, and Sumatera Sumatera 138,431 5.4 314,826 12.3 453,257 17.7islands harbor 85.8 % of Indonesian Maluku 66,759 2.6 90,685 3.5 157,444 6.1mangroves with primary mangrove Sulawesi 32,929 1.3 112,166 4.4 145,094 5.7(91.6 %), secondary mangrove (77.8 Jawa 8,865 0.3 23,339 0.9 32,205 1.3%) Nusa Tenggara 16,196 0.6 11,753 0.5 27,950 1.1 Indonesia 1,487,118 58.1 1,073,571 41.9 2,560,688 100.0 source: MoF-GoI, 2009
  12. 12. Mangrove Forest Cover Changes Primary mangroves Change Secondary mangroves Change All Mangroves Change Islands -1 -1 -1 2000 (ha) 2009 (ha) ha.yr 2000 (ha) 2009 (ha) ha.yr 2000 (ha) 2009 (ha) ha.yrPapua 1,186,161 1,166,406 2,195 72,751 78,682 (659) 1,258,912 1,245,088 1,536Kalimantan 74,767 57,532 1,915 581,420 442,119 15,478 656,186 499,650 17,393Sumatera 176,042 138,431 4,179 294,462 314,826 (2,263) 470,505 453,257 1,916Maluku 66,970 66,759 23 90,495 90,685 (21) 157,464 157,444 2Sulawesi 40,167 32,929 804 113,243 112,166 120 153,410 145,094 924Jawa 17,583 8,865 969 15,534 23,339 (867) 33,117 32,205 101Nusa Tenggara 16,227 16,196 3 11,758 11,753 0 27,985 27,950 4Indonesia 1,577,917 1,487,118 10,089 1,179,662 1,073,571 11,788 2,757,579 2,560,688 21,877 source: MoF-GoI, 2009Ecosystem C-pools of ecotypes and islands riverine (18) estuarine (8) Properties unit Note X ± sd Total C Pool -1 Ecosystem (Mg C.ha ) 1025.2 ±68.6 b 1172.7 ±66.2 a * Sumatera (6) Kalimantan (7) Papua (13) Properties unit Note X ± sd Total C Pool -1 Ecosystem (Mg C.ha ) 1230.0 ±67.1 a 944.7 ±37.6 b 1104.6 ±24.7 c **
  13. 13. Ecosystem C-pools
  14. 14. Large belowground pools 1,600Ecosystem C storage (Mg ha ) Aboveground live + dead-1 1,400 Soils 0-30 cm depth + roots 1,200 Soils below 30 cm depth 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Boreal Temperate Tropical Mangrove Tropical upland peat swamp (Donato et al., 2011)
  15. 15. If extended: include NAMAs Controlling water level in Acacia plantation, Riau Province
  16. 16. If extended: include NAMAs • Intensifying plantation • On degraded mineral soils • Avoid peatlands • Re-assess land banking • Use moratorium clauses • Revenue from palm oil: $16 B/yr
  17. 17. Brand new initiatives:Accelerating economic development
  18. 18. Indonesia is divided into six corridorsCorridor means connectivity (i.e. infrastructure)
  19. 19. Papua Economic Corridor Theme Economic Center Main Economic Activity• Center for food • Sofifi, Ambon • Food estate, MIFEE production, fisheries, • Sorong • Oil and gas energy and mining • Manokwari, Timika • Copper, Nickel • Jayapura, Merauke • Fisheries
  20. 20. Moratorium and OP industry Before (2007-2010) After (2011)Company involved 169 124Province involved 12 22Expansion (ha) 2,490,404 1,371,216Plant processing capacity 9,115 4,466(ton FB/hr)Source: Ministry of Agriculture and ANTARA News Agency (22 Nov 2012)
  21. 21. Lawmakers: “discontinue Moratorium”• Depriving local livelihoods• Job opportunities declined• OP applicants 300, approved 70-80• To freeze reforestation budgetThe Jakarta GlobeNovember 24, 2012Forest Ministry Pushes to Continue Deforestation Moratorium, House Pushes BackIndonesian lawmakers threatened on Friday to freeze the budget for reforestationprojects if President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono continues the nation’s deforestationmoratorium until 2014……………………………
  22. 22. Scrutinizing existing regulations • On “Procedures to change the function of forest lands” • Potentials for swapping • Re-align with the Law on spatial panning • On “Utilization of forest lands” • Is revoking unimplemented permits or unsustainable implementation possible?
  23. 23. Recommendations• Although the Moratorium was not specifically and uniquely meant to reduce emissions it can further serve as enabling conditions• If it is going to be extended, it should be targeted for C-rich forests, including secondary forests, mangrove ecosystems• Engaging lawmakers is crucial to synergize the existing regulations towards regaining C-rich forest ecosystems

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