The ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins: Benchmark Sites Experience

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The ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins (originally founded as Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn in 1994) is a global partnership of over 90 research institutions, universities, NGOs, community groups and farmer groups. ASB is currently focussed on reducing deforestation and emissions from land use change, including forestry and agriculture, while ensuring viable livelihoods and enhancing social and environmental co-benefits. This presentation gives an overview of the ASB benchmark sites and lessons learned from the process.

This presentation formed part of the CRP6 Sentinel Landscape planning workshop held on 30 September – 1 October 2011 at CIFOR’s headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia. Further information on CRP6 and Sentinel Landscapes can be accessed from http://www.cifor.org/crp6/ and http://www.cifor.org/fileadmin/subsites/crp/CRP6-Sentinel-Landscape-workplan_2011-2014.pdf respectively.

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The ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins: Benchmark Sites Experience

  1. 1. The ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest MarginsBenchmark Sites ExperiencePeter A Minang, Meine van Noordwijk & Glenn Hyman CRP6 MEETING, 30 SEPTEMBER 2011, BOGOR, INDONESIA
  2. 2. 10% TREE cover in agricultural lands… Enough to qualify as forest? Meadow 1996 2006 Fallow XP 2011 Vineyard Land cover change….3101 Fremont Drive, Sonoma,California, United States
  3. 3. Purpose of ASB Benchmarksites (A mix of objectives)• Understanding of key issues• Cross-site comparison• Observation• Technology transfer for impact (But this did not quite happen as funds ran short )
  4. 4. Key Issues • Reducing deforestation and forest degradation • Reducing Emissions from All Land Use (REALU) • Trade-offs at Forest Agriculture interface …..
  5. 5. Site locations Chiang Mai,Ucayali, ThailandPeru Southern Cameroon Jambi /Lampung, Western Amazon, Indonesia Brazil
  6. 6. Criteria for ASB Benchmark sites (I) Tropical & Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forest Biome HIGH EXTRAPOLATION POTENTIAL: PANTROPIC PROBLEM DOMAIN HIGH INTERPOLATION POTENTIAL? INDOMALAY AFROTROPICAL NEOTROPICAL AUSTRALASIA Terrestrial Forest Biomes Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests Tropical and Subtropical Dry and Monsoon Broadleaf Forests 1000 0 1000 2000 Kilometers Focus area Dividing line between humid and subhumid tropicsSource: WWF Global 200 Ecoregions (WWF 2001). # S ASB site locationsNotes: The Biomes displayed are only forest biomes thatare present in the warm humid and subhumid tropics.
  7. 7. Criteria for Choice of ASB Benchmarks (II)Representation of Biome typesSITE BIOMESumatran (Jambi and lampung), Equatorial rainforests of theIndonesia Indonesian and Malaysian archipelago.Claveria and Lantapan, Philippines Moonsoonal forestsPedro Peixoto, Acre and AmazonTheobroma, Rondônia WesternBrazilSouthern Cameroon Congo BasinMa Chaem watershed, Chiang Mai, Subtropical hill forests ofThailand mainland mountain Southeast Asia found in Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, and southern China.
  8. 8. Criteria for Choice of ASBBenchmarks (II)• DOMAIN SIMILARITY VALUE (Multiple Criteria- Largely bio-physical determinants of plant growth) • elevation, potential evapotranspiration, total annual precipitation, precipitation in the driest month, precipitation range, minimum average monthly temperature, and maximum average monthly temperature (Gillison 2000). • Using domain potential mapping procedure (Carpenter et al., 1993)
  9. 9. DOMAIN SIMILARITY VALUES
  10. 10. Criteria for Choice of ASB Benchmarks (III)Range of Socio-Economic Conditions A range of socio-economic conditions under which deforestation occurs• Some Examples: • Western Brazilian Amazon encompasses two colonization, and areas along the BR-362 highway • Cameroon, Congo Basin – low but increasing population density and traditional indigenous slash-and-burn practices • Relatively High Population Density and migration dynamic in Jambi and
  11. 11. Criteria for Choice of ASB Benchmarks(IV) Partnership and infrastructure• Working partnership in sites • Long term perspective of partnership (often including a local and national partner involved) • Ensures multiple perspectives / roles / skills• Access
  12. 12. Range of partners (national partners crucial)
  13. 13. BENCHMARK SITE CHARACTERISTICS
  14. 14. Specific Characteristics• Gradients within sites: Land Use, agro-ecology and Population Density = useful for capturing dynamics• Examples: • Population and land use gradients in Cameroon Site • Broad gradient from primary forests in the Jambi area to degraded Imperata grasslands in Lampung Province, including both indigenous farmers and colonization projects as well as large-scale plantations and logging companies
  15. 15. Cameroon- Site Gradients FROM RELATIVELY INTENSE MARKET GARDENING IN HIGH DENSITY AREAS TO FOREST IN LOW DENSITY AREAS
  16. 16. Sumatra- Site Gradients
  17. 17. Lessons: some fundamentalconsiderations• Use of comparative Methodological framework (site characterization, meta-land use)• The ASB Matrix• Multiple scales (nesting)• Long-term commitment and co-location• Expect surprises
  18. 18. Meta-Land Use Framework
  19. 19. The ASB Matrix
  20. 20. Multiple-scale (nesting)/ The relevance of the question…. • Now 5 Million ha in• Started out in ASB as Cameroon looking at a 10km x 20km deforestation drivers• -40- 80000ha ( in at sub-national level four blocks in Jambi; • In Tanjabar ( Tanjung 80000ha in Chiang Jabung Barat District Mai looking at district• Broadened to 1.5 M level planning ha for landscape Scenarios of REALU type interaction (Reduced Emissions questions from all Land Use) 500k ha
  21. 21. Expect Surprises – thereforebe flexible(i)• Despite • You can often stitch methodological up data of different harmonization, data periods to have an quality can still be impact story from varied different projects as• Funding challenges long as methods long term can match- e.g. ASB h/h disrupt plans ( I.e. surveys in Ucayali, technology aspects Peru and RAVA data of ASB not financed (though not for long time planned
  22. 22. Expect Surprises, hence beflexible (ii) • Jambi was chosen to be more towards left of curve, but in a short time moved more to the right (Mining becoming more important due to change in government; emergence of oil palm)
  23. 23. Expect Surprises, hence beflexible (iii) • Vietnam added to enable understanding of extreme left hand side of the forest transition curve (which was of course not very prominent at inception of ASB)
  24. 24. More information (www.asb.cgiar.org)
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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