Sustainable landscapes and food systems: Evidence for integration


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Presented by Terry Sunderland at the USAID and CIFOR mini-summit on food security and biodiversity in Washington D.C. on 26 October 2016.

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Sustainable landscapes and food systems: Evidence for integration

  2. 2. CONTEXT • “Forests & landscapes” not a new concept for CIFOR – been part of the strategic framework since establishment in 1993 • However, “sustainable landscapes” only recently integrated into development lexicon – GLF(s) have helped to do this • Forests, food and nutrition approach heavily rooted in NTFP paradigm, sustainable forest management, agroforestry etc. From the CIFOR Strategy 2015-2025: • Integration of diverse communities of practice in the sustainable landscapes debate: to be achieved by reconciling the principles of multifunctionality with the practice of managing sustainable landscapes for food security and nutrition and other benefits. • Increased policy recognition of the to need to better integrate the forestry and agricultural sectors: to be achieved by using the landscape approach as the convening factor (c.f. simultaneous yet separate declarations on forestry and agriculture).
  3. 3. BEYOND PROJECT: TOWARDS A “BODY OF WORK” Bushmeat Research Initiative Operationalising the landscape approach Agrarian Change in Tropical Landscapes Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition Nutrition and trees - Africa KANOPPI Forests and fish Ecosystem services and oil palm Integrated watershed management Drivers of food choice - Indonesia
  4. 4. THE ORIGIN OF THE “LANDSCAPE APPROACH” 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010 - present 1980s: Integrated Rural Development 1998: Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 1985 onwards: Integrated Conservation & Development projects (ICDPs) Contributing Sciences: Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology Island biogeography Conservation rooted frameworks e.g. “Ecosystem Approach” 1992: “Landscape Approach” first documented (Barrett 1992) Last decade: (Integrated) Landscape Approach frameworks
  5. 5. MAPPING THE RESEARCH ON LANDSCAPE APPROACHES 26,303 scoping results in WoK using 35 revised search terms 13,290 Publications captured with refined search terms All TITLES screened 271,974 results from initial 56 main search terms trialed in WoK 1,171 Relevant studies All ABSTRACTS screened 382 Relevant studies All FULL TEXTS screened 82 Final studies of relevance
  6. 6. EMBRACING THE LANDSCAPE APPROACH – INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS FOR PEOPLE ACROSS SECTORS “Despite some barriers to implementation, a landscape approach has considerable potential to meet social and environmental objectives at local scales while aiding national commitments to addressing ongoing global challenges.” Reed et al. 2016, Global Change Biology.
  7. 7. OPERATIONALISING THE LANDSCAPE APPROACH: HOW? THEORY PRACTICE E.g. Ten principles Real integration Local stakeholders Conservation: WCS, CI Development: USAID LESTARI Private sector: e.g. APP, APRIL Government: e.g. Ministry of Env. & Forestry
  9. 9. “Forests are a major repository of food and other resources that play a crucial role in food security. In addition, maintaining diversity in agricultural production systems leads to increased resilience to shocks particularly in the context of a changing climate”. Editorial: Arnold et al. 2011
  10. 10. “Our main findings can be summarized as follows: there is a statistically significant positive relationship between tree cover and dietary diversity; fruit and vegetable consumption increases with tree cover until a peak of 45% tree cover and then declines; and there is no relationship between animal source food consumption and tree cover. Overall our findings suggest that children in Africa who live in areas with more tree cover have more diverse and nutritious diets”. Ickowitz et al., 2014
  11. 11. “The relationship between biodiversity and nutrition suggests that we need to pay close attention to the potential of integrated approaches. We must also seek to understand what the implications are for policy and what the messages to policy makers should be. Primarily, it suggests there is a need for more systems and multi-sectorial approaches to address the contemporary concurrent challenges of sustainable food systems that include forestry, conservation, agriculture, food security and nutrition”. Powell et al., 2015
  12. 12. “Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to reconsider their views on this land use”. Ickowitz et al., 2016
  13. 13. "Our findings suggest that deforestation and land use change may have unforeseen consequences on the quality of local people’s diets. A better understanding of the contribution of forest foods to local diets is needed to understand the true impact that the loss of forests may have for nutrition in the face of agricultural expansion. If indeed forests substantially contribute to dietary quality in some areas as the results here imply, forest loss may result in unforeseen, adverse consequences on nutrition for local people." Rowland et al. 2016
  14. 14. FORESTS AND FOOD SECURITY: THE MISSING PIECE Seasonality Off-farm income Agriculture
  15. 15. FORESTS SUSTAINING AGRICULTURE How does landscape configuration maximise the provision of these goods and services for both forestry and food production??? Water regulation Climate regulation Pollination Pest control Foli et al. 2014; Reed et al. forthcoming
  16. 16. GENDER ISSUES “There is strong and clear evidence of the importance of including women in forest management groups for better resource governance and conservation outcomes”. Leisher et al. 2016 “Women and children collect more plant based forest foods while men are responsible for animal protein sources”. Sunderland et al. 2014
  18. 18. 2017: LAUNCH OF HLPE REPORT • Much of the recent work of our theme has influenced the drafting of the HLPE Report: “Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition” for the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) • At e-consultation stage, many individuals, civil society and governments provided formal review and feedback: e.g. Russian Federation, Australia, Brazil, Nigeria, India, US & the Netherlands • Report will be released in February 2017 and then officially launched at CFS Annual Congress in October • Probably greatest opportunity to get forests and food security and nutrition onto global food security agenda and policy arena
  19. 19. ALIGNMENT WITH USAID STRATEGIC PRIORITIES – BIODIVERSITY USAID Biodiversity Policy, 2014 “The poor management of both forests and fisheries means that these precious resources will not meet human demand over the long term – compromising global food security and straining the resilience of these systems and society”. Rajiv Shah, Administrator • “Integrate biodiversity as an essential component of human development” • “ Recognizing and responding to the different behaviors, roles, and responsibilities of men and women is critical… need a gender-sensitive approach to biodiversity conservation” • “Embark on evidence-based action and learning efforts with a focus on the nexus of biodiversity and other development sectors” • “Biodiversity and healthy ecosystems provide goods and services critical to human well-being (clean water, food, reduced natural disaster risk) and can help sustain development outcomes” • “Apply systems thinking and integrated approaches” • “Identification and pursuit of opportunities for integration of biodiversity with targeted sectors of agriculture, food security, climate change, health, economic growth, and trade”
  20. 20. ALIGNMENT WITH USAID STRATEGIC PRIORITIES – FOOD SECURITY Global Food Security Strategy 2017-2021 • “Inclusive and sustainable agriculture-led economic growth” • “Strengthened resilience among people and [food] systems” • “A well nourished population (putting nutrition before production), especially women and children” • “Ensuring a sustainable food and agricultural system” • “..aims to break silos, integrating programming across sectors and agencies” • “Evidence-based approach on what works…. for maximum results” • IR4: Increased sustainable productivity especially through climate smart approaches
  21. 21. THANK YOU!!