Proposed fire and haze research

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This presentation informs about the factors which are important when considering future haze research, like how emissions take place, goals of the research, the gaps left by previous research, the socioeconomic drivers and governance arrangements. It was presented at a multi-stakeholder workshop held in Jakarta on 29 January, 2014 to discuss areas of research into the haze crisis

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  • Definitions:Haze:Haze often occurs when dust and smoke particles accumulate in relatively dry air. When weather conditions block the dispersal of smoke and other pollutants they concentrate and form a usually low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and may become a respiratory health threat.
  • More than 40 projects (total investment USD 38 million from 1983-1999) have investigated the causes and impacts of fires in Indonesia during drier-than-usual El-Ninố years (e.g. 1982/83 1997/98).This slide has indentified gaps in the research
  • Logical framework
  • These drivers are also in the logical framework.
  • Proposed fire and haze research

    1. 1. Proposed fire and haze research
    2. 2. How do emissions take place? Heterotrophic soil respiration Net peat decomposition loss Fire CH4 & N2O CO2 ,CH4, CO CO2 & CH4 Litterfall Root mortality Soluble & physical removal (DIC, DOC & POC)
    3. 3. back
    4. 4. Goal of the research Contribute to reductions in fires, greenhouse gas emissions, and trans-boundary haze by better understanding the drivers of fires (who? why? and how?) and the governance conditions that mediate them, the climate feedbacks, and the impacts of haze on the global climate, and on human health.
    5. 5. Rationale Important gaps remain despite previous research on fires, greenhouse gas emissions and transboundary haze in SEA:  Drivers and impacts fires and haze have been poorly assessed during wet (non-El Ninõ) years  Drivers of fires and the governance conditions mediating them change over time  The temporal sequence of: “forest conversion to agriculture”, involving fire is not fully understood and is important for accurate GhG accounting  Estimated GHG and aerosols emissions from fires in SEA peatlands have high uncertainties, therefore their impacts in global climate and human health are not well determined
    6. 6. Overall Output  A protocol in place to monitor: (i) climatic and socioeconomic drivers of fires and haze; (ii) effectiveness of social and institutional arrangements; (iii) burned areas; (iv) impacts on the global climate and human health in rural and urban areas.  Forecast fire season severity in advance (early warning system developed)  More accurate estimates of GHG and aerosols emissions and impacts on human health from land fires and haze  Contribute to implement through multi-stakeholder dialogues Options on more effective institutional arrangements at multiple levels of governance for reducing land fires and haze.
    7. 7. Socio-economic drivers •Land tenure •Conflict •Finance and capital •Migration policy •Expanding OP market •Poverty •Demographic (population density & migration) •Drought/rainfall •El Niño occurrence •Indian Ocean Dipole •Wind speed/direction •Peat lands •Degraded lands •Peat soil draining Monitoring Outputs: Spatio-temporal variations of drivers mapped comprehensively at finer scales Mediating factors Governance & institutional arrangement Impacts Fire/Haze Mortality rate Others? Health Climate •Early warning system •More accurate GHG emissions estimation Multiple drivers Law enforcement Social negotiations Local/national politics Incentives Conservation interventions REDD+ •Protocol to monitor drivers Effectiveness and shortcomings of institutional arrangements •More accurate estimate human health impacts •Better understanding of Burnt areas&smoke patterns of drivers plumes landscapes dynamics mapped. and causality Haze composition & emissions rate known •Science supports Temperature Others? Impacts on temperature & human health (rural and urban) evidence based interventions Fewer fire/haze Underlying drivers Climatic, Soil, Landcover Drivers
    8. 8. Component 1: impacts on climate & health  What conditions cause fires to produce haze (water content, peat quality, land cover, burn frequency, etc.) and what controls these conditions?  How do drainage and burning affect greenhouse gas emissions?  What are the atmospheric transport mechanisms that determine the haze trajectory  How does haze affect rural health near in the region of burning  How does haze affect health in down-wind cities
    9. 9. Component 2: Socioeconomic drivers We want to understand the importance of drivers: • Market demand for agricultural commodities (e.g. oil palm, pulpwood) • Energy demand and potential contribution of crop feedstocks and biomass • Financing & capital investment • Credit for SMEs • Demography (availability of labor) • Migration • Poverty • Land tenure / Conflict
    10. 10. Component 2: socio-economic drivers  How are drivers are linked to fire ?  What other proximate and distal drivers are relevant?  How have the drivers of fire changed over time (e.g., since the 1997 haze incident)?
    11. 11. Component 3: Governance arrangements (policy levers)  Designation of strategic sectors for medium development planning (RPJM) (e.g., oil palm, timber/pulp estates)  Legal frameworks for land allocation (e.g., APL, HPK, HP)  Conservation incentives systems (e.g., REDD+, moratorium)  Law enforcement/incentives for compliance efforts  Policies/incentives for using degraded lands productively  Coordination among different institutions and administrative levels
    12. 12. Component 3: Governance arrangements  In what ways might these governance arrangements/policy levers be linked to fire/haze, if at all?  What are the barriers/gaps that limit the effectiveness of these government arrangements?  What types of arrangements/policy options might be most effective in the Indonesian context?

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