Participatory Monitoring of the Bushmeat Trade in the Amazonian Trifrontier (Columbia, Peru, Brazil)
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Participatory Monitoring of the Bushmeat Trade in the Amazonian Trifrontier (Columbia, Peru, Brazil)



This presentation by Daniel Cruz-Antia, María Paula Quiceno, Nathalie van Vliet, Lindon Jonhson Neves & Robert Nasi during the ATBC 2014 in Caims, Australia, focuses on bushmeat and the rural to ...

This presentation by Daniel Cruz-Antia, María Paula Quiceno, Nathalie van Vliet, Lindon Jonhson Neves & Robert Nasi during the ATBC 2014 in Caims, Australia, focuses on bushmeat and the rural to urban transition, why the data on urban bushmeat trade is so scarce in the Amazon and it describes the structure and function of the bushmeat market chain.



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  • To begin with, it is a reality... <br /> <br /> The majority of studies about hunting have focused on rural contexts, it is estimated that ...are consumed in the amazon <br /> <br /> But, little research has been made about the bushmeat trade, because the context of illegality in which it is involved, due to local environmental policies <br /> <br /> This has led for urban bushmeat trade as insignificant also because... <br /> <br /> However, there have been very interesting research about this issue, such as those done in... <br />
  • For this reason, by developing a study case we wanted to contribute to the understanding of these questions: <br /> <br /> So, our objective was to: <br />
  • So we went to the rifrontier region between Col, Per, Bra <br /> <br /> Mainly because there is a blend of human groups, policy and economic contexts, that were quite attractive <br /> <br /> We identified important market centers <br />
  • To answer our questions we used: <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • Our results <br /> <br /> 4’
  • <br /> We identified … in the bushmeat market chain <br /> <br /> Where hunters were mostly men and informal restaurants were mostly run by women <br /> <br />
  • Also by analizing the estructure per location we could see that there are complete market chains, with suppliers and trders at different levels
  • Then, based on the information we build the trifrontier bushmeat market chain, and this is how it works: <br /> <br /> It starts with hunters *** <br /> <br /> They sell to their communities to intermediaries or they go to market centers to sell to market traders, whom*** <br /> <br /> Also the can go directly to food…*** <br /> <br /> Finally the meat is bought by… <br /> <br /> Now, as this is an ilegal market, surveillance affects all levels of the chain… <br /> <br /> Actors have developed strategies to cope with controls (times of the day, cellphone, buy hunting supplies in Peru) <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • That can be indigenous (Colombia & Peru) and Mestizos “Caboclos” (Brazil) <br /> <br /> We identified diversified and specialized hunters, the difference is that specialized sell 90%, have longer market networks, they have to salt or smoke the meat to conserve it because they visit mostly primary forests located at several days of distance <br /> <br /> 29%... <br /> <br /> ...they visit hunting areas by...and in they use... <br /> <br /> <br />
  • Intermediaries can go to the community or wait hunters at the harbours and buy... <br /> <br /> Whereas market traders have... <br /> <br /> And have an average of 5 usd kg <br />
  • That are located in... <br /> <br /> We identified to type of prices, for locals and for tourists <br /> <br /> The most preferred species were <br /> <br />
  • These controls configure the types and lenght of the flows, as well as costs... <br /> <br />
  • Finally, with the monitoring with hunters we registered a total of 13 tons accounting for 485 individuals where the most hunted species were ... <br /> <br /> There was an increase of bushmeat hunted from 5,24 tons in Low level waters to 7,75 tons during high level waters <br /> <br />
  • And for the case of market places, we registered 6,7 tons where SPP were the mos traded <br /> <br /> Quantities traded were almost the same during both seasons, with 3 tons in Low level waters and 3,7 tons during high level waters <br /> <br />
  • Based on this information, we can conclude that bushmeat in the region still contributes this complete market chains accounts for $$$, which is equivalent to.... That can be used to sustain... <br /> <br /> Another conclusion is that, although.... We show that bushmeat volumes traded in the trifrontier are not different from those of studies in Brazil and Central Africa, for example if we take our monitoring results from Tabatinga were 56,21 tons were traded in a population of 52272 hab, it accounts for 1kg/capita/year <br /> <br /> That is quite similar to studies in: <br /> <br /> Then... <br /> <br /> <br />
  • We can conclude also that, as preferred species are not under endangered categories and are resilient (adapt to different habitat types and hunting pressures), there is an opportunity to... <br /> <br /> This has to be based on innovative strategies to monitor market chains, preferences and wildlife population trends <br /> <br /> Where the participation of local institutions and users is essential. <br /> <br /> The aim would be to create... <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • …A toolkit, that can be adapted to specific contexts, as.. <br /> <br /> Finally, we showed that developing this type of research is possible even in strong contexts of illegality and surveillance, as local actors expressed their interest in this types of approaches based on… <br /> <br /> Where the use of bushmeat can be understood as an essential livelihood for food security instead of an activity to be penalized. <br /> <br />
  • Please visit our fan page in Facebook… <br /> <br /> And the webpage of the Cifor bushmeat research initiative

Participatory Monitoring of the Bushmeat Trade in the Amazonian Trifrontier (Columbia, Peru, Brazil) Participatory Monitoring of the Bushmeat Trade in the Amazonian Trifrontier (Columbia, Peru, Brazil) Presentation Transcript

  • Innovative ways for conserving the ecosystem services provided by bushmeat SYMPOSIA ATBC 2014 Cairns, Australia PARTICIPATORY MONITORING OF THE BUSHMEAT TRADE IN THE AMAZONIAN TRIFRONTIER (COLOMBIA, PERU & BRAZIL) Daniel Cruz-Antia, María Paula Quiceno, Nathalie van Vliet, Lindon Jonhson Neves & Robert Nasi
  •  Bushmeat is still fundamental for the subsistence of rural and urban communities in the Amazon, even in contexts of rapid socioeconomic transformations  push rural livelihoods away from the dependency on forest products.  Rural hunting: 150 000 tons/year (Nasi, Taber & van Vliet, 2011)  Lack of information for urban bushmeat marketsilegallity  Insignificant: Because of availability and prices of domestic sources of protein (Rushton et al, 2005) • Iquitos, Loreto - Peru (Bodmer and Lozano 2001, Claggett 1998) • Abaetetuba, Pará-Brazil (Baía et al 2010) Bushmeat and the rural to urban transition
  • Research questions  Study case in a frontier region  Why is data on urban bushmeat trade so scarce in the Amazon? • Is the trade insignificant? • Is it invisible and difficult to assess because it occurs in hidden markets? • Is it because public institutions and research have provided little efforts in quantifying its importance?  Describe the structure and function of the bushmeat market chain
  • Study area
  • Methods  Diversity of approaches to describe and quantify the bushmeat market chain: Participatory observation Informal and semi-estructured interviews Participatory monitoring
  • What did we find? Results
  • 113 23 8 22 11 10 26 HUNTERS MARKET SELLERS RESTAURANTS (FORMAL) RESTAURANTS (INFORMAL) Numberofusers Men Women Stakeholders in the bushmeat market chain  195 users (115 hunters, 34 market sellers, 18 formal restaurants and 28 informal restaurants)
  • 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Santa Rosa (Pe) Caballococha & Atacuari River (Pe) Islandia (Pe) Puerto Nariño & Loretoyacu river (Col) Leticia (Col) Atalaia do Norte (Bra) Benjamin Constant (Bra) Tabatinga (Bra) Number of users Restaurants (Informal) Restaurants (Formal) Market sellers Hunters Stakeholders in the bushmeat market chain
  • Surveillance (30% of users reported to be penalized)
  • Catchment area and trade routes  Flows are limited by control operations and costs of transportation and supplies, and vary according to the availability of fish and the demand from coca workers
  • Species composition and quantities of bushmeat  Hunters (8) • Mammals 60%, birds 26%, reptiles 14%. • 485 individuals and 13 tons in 60 days • 5,24 tons Low level • 7,75 tons High level 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Pecari tajacu Aburria sp. Dasypus sp Mazama americana Tayassu pecari Dasyprocta fuliginosa Crypturellus sp. Lagothrix lagothricha Tapirus terrestris Crax sp Podocnemis unifilis Cuniculus paca Number of individuals High-level waters Low-level waters
  • Species composition and quantities of bushmeat  Market places (8) • Mammals 74%, birds 16%, reptiles 10%. • 6,7 tons in 20 days • 3 tons Low level • 3,7 tons high level 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mazama gouazoubira Chelonoidis denticulata Podocnemis unifilis Tayassu pecari Crax globulosa Dasypus sp. Mazama americana Pecari tajacu Tapirus terrestris Cuniculus paca Number of reports Low level waters High level waters
  • Discussion & Conclusions  Bushmeat trade contributes to people´s livelihoods, local economy and well-being: complete market chains (US$686,000 year=2286 monthly min. wage=190 people)  Clandestinity provides the erronous idea that the volumes traded are insignificant6,7 tons (8 traders/20 days)  Then bushmeat trade in Amazonian towns is not insignificant, is instead insufficiently studied 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 Tabatinga (Brazil) - 56,21tons/52272 hab Abaetetuba (Brazil) - 128tons/130.000hab Franceville (Gabón) 45tons/40,000hab kg of bushmeat/per cápita/year
  •  Opportunity to legalise and regulate the market of resilient species, while monitoring the effect of the trade on more vulnerable ones (and regulating in accordance). • Paca (LC): widely distributed, large population, unlikely to be declining. • Collared peccary: widely distributed, habitat loss and over-hunting (LC), requires monitoring • Tapir: VU, habitat loss, illegal hunting and competition with livestock • Red brocket deer: Data Deficient Discussion & Conclusions Innovative monitoring tools based on local participation
  •  Market data can provide valuable information for policy makers and managers to formulate strategies for the sustainable use of wildlife  Participatory approaches are worth trying: • It is possible to work together with the stakeholders of the trade chain to study the activity and put in place monitoring mechanisms. • Trust  Cooperation Discussion & Conclusions