Community forest management and REDD+: Lessons from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia<br />by<br />Peter Cronkleton<br />David Br...
Summary<br /><ul><li>CFM can reduce deforestation and degradation
How to create conditions conducive to CFM?</li></ul>Lessons from Latin America<br /><ul><li>Secure forest property rights ...
Without strong multi-scaled governance institutions, the success of CFM is limited</li></li></ul><li>Community Forest Mana...
Emergence of CFM in Latin America<br />The three Latin American cases<br />Mexico -- Comunidades/Ejidos<br />Brazil – Extr...
Mexican CFM<br />Rooted in agrarian reform (early XX century)<br />Creation of comunidadesandEjidos, (article 27 of consti...
Brazil: Extractive Reserves (RESEX)<br />Rooted in rural resistance to Amazon development policy (late 1980s)<br /><ul><li...
 48 RESEX , 12 million hectares in Amazon</li></ul>Huge properties with secure boundaries<br /><ul><li>Combine multiple co...
 Governed by RESEX management council, not linked to community institutions, loss of local control</li></ul>CFM in RESEX<b...
 Emerging grassroots efforts to negotiate local CFM</li></li></ul><li>Bolivian Indigenous CFM<br />Rooted in indigenous de...
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Community forest management and REDD+: Lessons from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia

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Presentation by Peter Cronkleton, David Bray, Gabriel Medina.
Community forest management and REDD+: Lessons from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia.
Oaxaca Workshop Forest Governance, Decentralisation and REDD+ in Latin America and the Caribbean,
31 August – 03 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico.

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Community forest management and REDD+: Lessons from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia

  1. 1. Community forest management and REDD+: Lessons from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia<br />by<br />Peter Cronkleton<br />David Bray<br />Gabriel Medina<br />FOREST GOVERNANCE, DECENTRALIZATION AND REDD+ <br />IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN<br />September 3, 2010 Oaxaca, Mexico<br />
  2. 2. Summary<br /><ul><li>CFM can reduce deforestation and degradation
  3. 3. How to create conditions conducive to CFM?</li></ul>Lessons from Latin America<br /><ul><li>Secure forest property rights crucial first step, but
  4. 4. Without strong multi-scaled governance institutions, the success of CFM is limited</li></li></ul><li>Community Forest Management<br />CFM: use, manipulation and control of forest resources and services with future intent by self-defined communities or groups within communities under shared rules or collective rights. <br />Community management reducing forest emissions?<br />Brazilian indigenous territories halted deforestation despite high rates along boundaries (Nepstadet al. 2006)<br />Nicaragua - in areas of the BOSAWAS reserve under indigenous control deforestation 16 times lower than in surrounding areas (Stocks 2007) <br />Brazil’s Alto Juruá RESEX maintains 99% forest cover after a decade (Ruiz-Pérezet al. 2005)<br />
  5. 5. Emergence of CFM in Latin America<br />The three Latin American cases<br />Mexico -- Comunidades/Ejidos<br />Brazil – Extractive Reserves<br />Bolivia – TierrasComunitarias de Origen (TCO)<br />Key difference<br />Mexico: mature CFM, manageably sized territories, lengthy period of learning, strong governance<br />Brazil and Bolivia: emerging CFM, huge territories, parallel tenure and forestry reforms, large properties w/landscape scale governance institutions<br />
  6. 6. Mexican CFM<br />Rooted in agrarian reform (early XX century)<br />Creation of comunidadesandEjidos, (article 27 of constitution) <br />Rural communities control 60 – 70% of Mexico’s forests<br />Agrarian reform introduced universal governance template <br />Legally defined members <br />General assembly, w/elected leadership, regular meetings<br />Emergence of CFEs based on common property (1970s)<br />
  7. 7. Brazil: Extractive Reserves (RESEX)<br />Rooted in rural resistance to Amazon development policy (late 1980s)<br /><ul><li> Conservation areas that recognize inhabitants’ extractive livelihoods
  8. 8. 48 RESEX , 12 million hectares in Amazon</li></ul>Huge properties with secure boundaries<br /><ul><li>Combine multiple communities, strict conservation rules
  9. 9. Governed by RESEX management council, not linked to community institutions, loss of local control</li></ul>CFM in RESEX<br /><ul><li> Official CFM projects have had limited impact
  10. 10. Emerging grassroots efforts to negotiate local CFM</li></li></ul><li>Bolivian Indigenous CFM<br />Rooted in indigenous demands for property rights (1990s)<br />Tierra Comunitaria de Origen, TCO<br />Communal properties, recognize ancestral claims and livelihoods needs<br />Governed by indigenous ‘usos y costumbres’<br />54 TCOs, 7 to 10 million hectares of forest, multi-community, multiethnic properties<br />Demarcation and titling of TCOs slow <br />Weak property rights, <br />Governance weakly linked to community level institutions<br />Communities have turned to CFM to establish control over forest<br />48 CFM plans, 1.5 million hectares of forest<br />
  11. 11. Discussion<br />Creating conditions for CFM entails both secure property rights and support for the development of multi-scaled governance institutions<br />Properties need appropriate scale, clear demarcation and membership<br />How to developing multi-scaled resource governance institutions (involving community organization, government and NGOs at multiple scales)<br />Introduce templates and guidelines<br />Build on traditional or customary systems <br />Build capacity to engage technical support, establish alliances and build networks w/ multiple social actors<br />Expect cycles of learning and adaptation (medium term 3 – 5 years; i.e. ‘patient money’)<br />
  12. 12. Conclusions<br />CFM could be a mechanism that produces optimal REDD+ outcomes (reduced deforestation and degradation)<br />Requires producing conditions supportive of CFM development<br />CFM in REDD+ programs will entail focus on governance at multiple scales (especially local)<br />Creating conditions for CFM: <br />Forest property rights crucial first step, <br />insufficient without strong multi-scaled governance institutions<br />
  13. 13. www.cifor.cgiar.org<br />

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