Opportunities and obstacles for smallholder and community forestry in the MAP region
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Opportunities and obstacles for smallholder and community forestry in the MAP region

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Peter Cronkleton...

Peter Cronkleton
Amy Duchelle
Rosa Cossio

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

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  • 1. Opportunities and obstacles for smallholder and community Forestry in the MAP region
    by
    Peter Cronkleton
    Amy Duchelle
    Rosa Cossio
    Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry
    March 24, 2010 Montpellier, France
  • 2. Objective: Compare smallholder and community forestry in MAP region
    How reforms and initiatives opened opportunity?
    What outcomes resulted from these changes?
  • 3. Juncture of international boundaries between Peru, Brazil and Bolivia
    • Madre de Deus ,Peru
    • 4. Acre, Brazil
    • 5. Pando, Bolivia
    The MAP REGION
  • 6. MAP: historical linkage and divergence
    Initially settled in late 19th century during rubber boom
    Early 20th century
    National boarders defined
    International price of rubber collapsed
    Region marginalized, stagnant economy, boom-bust cycles
    Rural workforce formed communities and developed diversified forest-based livelihoods
    Late 20th century - transportation corridors makes region accessible
    Frontier change
    Promotion of CFM
  • 7. Madre de Dios, Peru
    8.5 million ha
    Population 109,555
    4.7 million ha of protected rainforest ecosystems
    2.5 million ha permanent production forests
    Extractive economy
    Logging employs 65% of the economically active population
    22 to 30% of population derive income directly or indirectly from the Brazil nut trade (FAO 2005)
    Alluvial gold mining major economic activity
  • 8. Forestry and Wildlife Law (N°27308) of 2000
    Mechanisms to grant use/management rights to smallholders and communities
    forest concessions (40 years)
    permits and authorizations (variable duration)
    All commercial use requires approved management plan and payment of harvest fee
    Photos: Cossio 2009
  • 9. Forestry and Wildlife Law (N°27308) of 2000
    Timber concessions intended for small and medium scale loggers
    Form associations (Small and Medium Forest Enterprises: SMFEs)
    Concession contracts awarded through licitation process
    2002-2003: 1,311,705 ha granted as forest concessions to 73 SMFEs
    Rights are transferable leading to some concentration by large industries
  • 10. Forestry and Wildlife Law (N°27308) of 2000
    NTFP concessions
    982 contracts for Brazil nut concessions
    area under Brazil nut management is 1,200,000 ha
    2004 resolution authorized harvesting up to 5 m3/ha of timber in brazil nut concessions
    Logging permits for Indigenous communities and smallholders: 2002-2007
    4 indigenous permits for 31,801 ha
    1640 smallholder permits for 154,318 ha
  • 11. Results in Madre de Dios
    Forest concession system,
    created a large sector of private SMFEs,
    lacks adequate state resources for sufficient oversight to ensure legal forest management;
    NGO support proved crucial for the implementation of the forest concession system, but. . .
    assistance constituted a patchwork with little coordination, shifting in priorities and poor collaboration
    limited capacity failed to manage realistic expectations
    NGO assistance tended to be very short-term instead of sustained support over time;
    SMFEs capacity variable, generally inadequate for sustainable forest management (Cossio 2009)
  • 12. Acre, Brazil
    16.4 million hectares
    Population 669,736 (46% in Rio Branco)
    Birthplace of Brazil’s rubber tapper movement to defend forest property and livelihoods of regions rural people
    41% of state is property controlled rubber tappers, indigenous people and smallholders
  • 13. Key programs and reforms
    1992 Program for the Conservation of the Brazilian Rainforest (PPG7),
    funding early CFM pilot programs in Amazon
    1998 Simplified Forest Management Plans (PMFSimples)
    introduced for community project up to 500 hectares
    1998 ‘Forest Government’ elected,
    institutes pro-forest community policies (Chico Mendes Law, NTFP and integrated management, cooperatives)
    2006 Decentralization of authorization to state level IBAMA office and delegation to IMAC
  • 14. Timber management
    Initially much debate about role of timber management
    Implementation accelerated after 2006
    Currently 18 community forestry projects approved or pending approval
    Area under community management 32,525 ha
  • 15. Results in Acre
    Most proactive policy to promote timber management
    Conversely smallest area under community management plans
    Although tenure relatively secure, tenure insecurity seen as key bottle neck
    Bureaucracy another constraint to local management
  • 16. Pando, Bolivia
    Characteristics
    63,827 km2
    52,525 inhabitants
    Over 95% forest cover
    Historic dependence on NTFP extraction
  • 17. Economy Based on extraction of Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa)
    Export loans and improved access led to investments in processing industry starting in late 80s
    Bolivia major source of world’s Brazil nuts
    Bolivia’s #1 forest export (USD 74 M in 2005)
    80 % originate in Pando
    Until 2004 most producers relied on customary property rights
  • 18. Bolivia’s 1996 Tenure and Forestry Reform
    Tenure Reform Law (Ley INRA):
    redistribution based on technical and legal grounds
    New Forestry Law:
    promote sustainable management
    democratize access to commercial benefits
    For communities emphasized:
    communal property rights (inalienable, indivisible, non-reversible, collective, and non-mortgageable and tax-exempt)
    Modified to recognize agro-extractive communities
    500 hectares per family
    Titled at community level
    Accommodates customary tree tenure
  • 19. Advances in tenure reform
    Agro-extractive communities
    159 communities
    2,002,436 hectares titled
    Indigenous territories (TCOs)
    2 TCOs
    432,899 titled
  • 20. Results in Pando
    Emphasized timber management
    Between 2002 to 2008, 28 forest management plans approved in agroextractive and TCOs.
    A total of 342,807 ha of forest under management
    Difficult for communities to meet requirements without assistance
    23 of plans assisted by logging companies attempting to gain access to community forests
  • 21. Conclusions
    Region dominated by livelihoods based on community forestry prior to reforms
    Emphasis of policies and programs was introduction of timber management not NTFPs
    Timber management projects based on externally introduced strategies
    Relatively small percentage of rural population has benefited from forest management opportunities offered by reforms and projects
    Those communities that did benefit were heavily dependent on external assistance from NGOs or others
    Response of state agencies to community needs weak, insufficient or contradictory
  • 22. www.cifor.cgiar.org