New Communities’ and Peasants’ Strategies in Bolivian Amazon. Threats and Hopes for a Sustainable Use of Forest Resources....
<ul><li>Introduction. Historical and Economical Context. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoritical Considerations. Property Rights: Na...
Historical and Economical Context of the Bolivian Amazon. <ul><li>Rubber Extraction and Barracas. A specific social and ec...
Historical and Economical Context of the Bolivian Amazon. <ul><li>Development of free agro-extractive communities. </li></...
Competition for accessing land and natural resources <ul><li>Competing actors </li></ul><ul><li>Barraqueros </li></ul><ul>...
Theoritical Considerations.  Property Rights: Nature and Construction <ul><li>Property rights over land and NR : 3 main ty...
Theoritical Considerations.  Property Rights: Nature and Construction <ul><li>Different Rigths Holders </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Community Studies <ul><li>Agro- extractive communities in Pando (Bolivia). Location of the studied communities.  </li></ul...
Community Studies <ul><li>Construction of Rigths over Land and Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Saneamiento </li></...
Construction of Rights over Land and Natural Resources. Saneamiento. <ul><li>Villa Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle agai...
Superposition of 2 ways of establishing Land Rights <ul><li>Saneamiento / collective rights </li></ul><ul><li>Individual r...
What do we learn from those 2 situations ?  <ul><li>Santa Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Individualisation of rights first  </l...
Conflicts and threats <ul><li>Santa Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts in Compensation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts ...
usually, those rights are not sold  they are not inherited for ever control rights of commercial fisheries belonging to co...
permanent, as long as grazing lands are not reverted to forest The farmer has an exclusive control over the grazing lands....
Discussion. Conclusions. 1/2 <ul><li>The present legal framework  </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights OR collective rights...
Discussion. Conclusions. 2/2 <ul><li>Two legal traditions, compatible with changes (common law and Civil Code) </li></ul><...
www.agter.asso.fr AGTER,  an Association for an  Improved  Land, Water and Natural Resource  Governance .
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New communities’ and peasants’ strategies in Bolivian Amazon threats and hopes for a sustainable use of forest resources

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Marta Fraticelli, Michel Merlet

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Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

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New communities’ and peasants’ strategies in Bolivian Amazon threats and hopes for a sustainable use of forest resources

  1. 1. New Communities’ and Peasants’ Strategies in Bolivian Amazon. Threats and Hopes for a Sustainable Use of Forest Resources. Marta Fraticelli, Michel Merlet March 2010. Montpellier. Conference CIFOR, IRD, CIRAD. Taking Stock of Smallholder and community forestry : Where do we go from here ?
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction. Historical and Economical Context. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoritical Considerations. Property Rights: Nature and Construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of Rigths over Land and Natural Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Saneamiento”(regularization of land titles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superposition of 2 different models of Land Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts inside communities and between Forest Communities and outsiders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Historical and Economical Context of the Bolivian Amazon. <ul><li>Rubber Extraction and Barracas. A specific social and economic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriation of rights over rubber trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitative system of workers (family gathering, dependence for basic needs and alimentation, debts – habilito system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For more than 100 years, the barraca system has remained in place, controling all economic and social relations in the region. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Historical and Economical Context of the Bolivian Amazon. <ul><li>Development of free agro-extractive communities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclical crisis. Communities start to free themselves. / depending on political conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diferent dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redistribution of rights over land and NR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Agrarian Reform” … specificities in lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggles between Barracas and Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decree 1999. 3.000.000 ha to 200 beneficiaries ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroot mobilisation of nut gatherers and indigenous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decree 2000. average 500 ha for each agro-extractive family through collective tiltles to communities in amazonian regions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Competition for accessing land and natural resources <ul><li>Competing actors </li></ul><ul><li>Barraqueros </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Groups (TCO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranchers </li></ul><ul><li>Timber industries (concesions) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theoritical Considerations. Property Rights: Nature and Construction <ul><li>Property rights over land and NR : 3 main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Rights over specific ressource products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Rights, of establishing rules, of giving access, linked with the spatial dimension of the territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer Rights, (to sell, to inherit, to concede for some time, …), linked with time. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Theoritical Considerations. Property Rights: Nature and Construction <ul><li>Different Rigths Holders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective, families, tribes, rural communities, municipalities, States, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights over NR and Land are not established once and for ever. Permanently evolving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top – Down Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction from below, through social legitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bolivia’s specific characters. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Community Studies <ul><li>Agro- extractive communities in Pando (Bolivia). Location of the studied communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Merlet and Fraticelli, 2009. map prepared from CIFOR cartographic data </li></ul>
  9. 9. Community Studies <ul><li>Construction of Rigths over Land and Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Saneamiento </li></ul><ul><li>Superposition of 2 different models of Land Access </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts inside communities and between Forest Communities and outsiders </li></ul>
  10. 10. Construction of Rights over Land and Natural Resources. Saneamiento. <ul><li>Villa Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle against the Barrraquero </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Rights over a large territory (30400 Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating individual areas through sales of improvements </li></ul><ul><li>A small fragmented area (6400 Ha) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Superposition of 2 ways of establishing Land Rights <ul><li>Saneamiento / collective rights </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights only secured through local customs within the communities, not legally opposable to third parties </li></ul>Socia l validation : Family rights over rubber and Brazil nut trees, and over mejoras Main evolution of rights, slipping from : access to fruits of groups of trees to rights over land plots
  12. 12. What do we learn from those 2 situations ? <ul><li>Santa Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Individualisation of rights first </li></ul><ul><li>/ saneamiento later </li></ul><ul><li>Collective entitlement as a way to secure rights and to enlarge endowment of land </li></ul><ul><li>Sales / Purchases of mejoras without enough control </li></ul><ul><li>Villa Florida </li></ul><ul><li>the saneamiento interno in Villa Florida </li></ul><ul><li>/ plots of 500 ha </li></ul><ul><li>≠ decree </li></ul><ul><li>2 objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Internally redistribute access to NR </li></ul><ul><li>Secure individual rights </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conflicts and threats <ul><li>Santa Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts in Compensation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts with former land owners </li></ul><ul><li>Sales of “mejoras / land” to outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>Villa Florida </li></ul><ul><li>(Conflicts with neighbours – barraqueros) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflicts / subdivision </li></ul><ul><li>Nature Reserve </li></ul>
  14. 14. usually, those rights are not sold they are not inherited for ever control rights of commercial fisheries belonging to community foreigners are claimed by the communities right to fish usually, these rights are not sold they are not inherited for ever - right to go hunting community members Everybody national forest law usually, these rights are not sold they are not inherited valid as long as the person lives in the community - right to gather non-timber products (Palms, etc.) or timber for domestic use community members cannot be sold can be inherited Brazil nut recollection right, on groups of trees. cannot be sold can be inherited valid as long as the person lives in the community historically not. Strongly claimed for the last decades, now recognized or in process of being recognized rubber recollection right on &quot;estradas&quot; individual / family Gathering, Hunting and fishing Rights (individuals and families) national forest law cannot be sold Temporary transfer of Rights to companies or to community members is possible (lease) permanent, no prescription access control to the territory is possible management rules and use norms can be established Access rights to all kinds of natural resources Community Legal Entity (OTB, Grassroots Territorial Organization) national laws permanent access control to the territory control on natural resources withdrawal - Nature Reserve Collective rights rights to transfer the other rights right validity Limits, restrictions relation with time Management Rights usufruct rights right held by
  15. 15. permanent, as long as grazing lands are not reverted to forest The farmer has an exclusive control over the grazing lands. range lands and grazing lands, infrastructures (fences, enclosures, …) The person who did the work holds the rights on pastures and infrastructures those established by the community and by the national laws Those rights can be (and are) inherited Through the sale of lasting improvements (&quot;mejoras&quot;), rights become more and more permanent. Sales are frequently subjected to community control. It is generally allowed to sell mejoras to another member of the community, but selling to a foreigner cannot be done without a previous agreement. valid as long as the person works in the plot and lives in the community otherwise, rights return to be held by the community The farmer has an exclusive control over the reverted land / bush fallow. annual crops (chacos) including the reverted land – bush fallow (whole crop rotation) The person who did the work holds the right on the agricultural products. It is not clear if those rights can be inherited it seems that those rights cannot be sold as long as the perennial crops exist the planter just on the trees, valid even if the soil is under the control of another person perennial crops (planted trees) The person who did the work holds the rights on the fruits given by the trees those established by the community and by the owner it is possible to sell improvements &quot;mejoras&quot;, just related with the crop, but it does not occur. temporary the farmer the community or the &quot;owner&quot; give permission to clear the area for cultivation (chaco) and to cultivate for one or two years. After this period, the bush fallow is reverted under community control annual crops (chacos) The person who did the work holds the rights on the agricultural product individual / family Rights related to agricultural work, cattle breeding, or tree plantations rights to transfer the other rights right validity Limits, restrictions relation with time Management Rights usufruct rights main rights held by
  16. 16. Discussion. Conclusions. 1/2 <ul><li>The present legal framework </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights OR collective rights </li></ul><ul><li>and economic dynamics (net income by ha. / difficil access to collective forest resources) </li></ul><ul><li>A key problem of governance </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><li>Forest destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Growing inequality in land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Serious conflicts </li></ul>Society, collective individual
  17. 17. Discussion. Conclusions. 2/2 <ul><li>Two legal traditions, compatible with changes (common law and Civil Code) </li></ul><ul><li>Important change in Bolivian constitution </li></ul><ul><li>How laws and rules can implement it ? </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>Recomposition of bundles of rights </li></ul><ul><li>Means and time are needed to built new governance schemes. </li></ul>Society, collective individual
  18. 18. www.agter.asso.fr AGTER, an Association for an Improved Land, Water and Natural Resource Governance .

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