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Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes
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Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes

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Find out how Landscape management is highly relevant to both adaptation and mitigation, which synergies in that landscape management exist and what we should take from that.

Find out how Landscape management is highly relevant to both adaptation and mitigation, which synergies in that landscape management exist and what we should take from that.

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  • Examples for 3: Interviews with UNEP, UNFCCC Adaptation Fund, Dfid, FFEM, World Bank, GEF, EC, GIZ, CBFF, JICA, GEF, CIDA…
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    • 1. Adaptation-mitigation synergies in forest and agricultural landscapes Bruno Locatelli (CIRAD-CIFOR), Giacomo Fedele (CIFOR) With contributions by Florie Chazarin, Emilia Pramova (CIFOR), Charlotte Pavageau (CIFOR & ETH Switzerland), Rico Kongsager (U Copenhagen Denmark), Monica di Gregorio (U Leeds, UK), Virginie Fayolle, Alastair Baglee (Acclimatise, UK) Side event on “Linking Adaptation and Mitigation to Address Multiple Risks: New Research Findings and Field Examples”. Warsaw, Poland, 14 November 2013.
    • 2. Synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation  Growing interest in exploring how these two strategies can be pursued simultaneously • win–win options?  However, concerns about: • feasibility of implementing these strategies jointly • possible drawbacks of a „forced marriage„  How can landscape management contribute to both adaptation and mitigation? (Dang et al. 2003; Klein et al. 2005; Kok and de Coninck 2007; Swart and Raes 2007; Tol 2005; Locatelli et al. 2011)
    • 3. Landscape management highly relevant to both adaptation and mitigation Greenhouse gas concentrations Climate change Impacts Responses MITIGATION ADAPTATION Forests and agriculture in landscapes Emissions / Removals Landscape-based mitigation (e.g. REDD+) Vulnerability Adaptation for landscapes (e.g. fire management) Products and services for people livelihoods and protection Landscape-based adaptation (e.g. protecting watersheds for downstream vulnerable populations)
    • 4. Synergies between adaptation and mitigation in landscape management 1. What do we know? 2. What is being done at the local level? 3. What is being done at the global level? Systematic literature review, 139 papers 1. Science 2. Local projects Analysis of local initiatives, 235 projects 3. Global funding Fund analysis, 22 interviews of major fund representatives
    • 5. 1. What do we know? Science Systematic literature review, 139 papers
    • 6. 1. Science Mitigation Examples of topics in the reviewed papers Adaptation Agroforestry, silvopastoril systems, soil management Increased carbon in vegetation or soils, reduced emissions Impacts of REDD+ projects Impacts of forest plantations Role of mangroves and coastal ecosystems Agricultural resilience Products as safety nets, livelihood diversification Watershed protection, water balance and regulation Coastal protection Synergies between ecosystem services (carbon vs. “adaptation services”). But also trade-offs, e.g.: more carbon in plantations less water downstream forest protected under REDD+ restricted access for livelihoods vulnerability
    • 7. 1. Science <5 papers 6-14 papers >15 papers
    • 8. 2. What is being done at the local level? Local projects Analysis of local initiatives, 235 projects
    • 9. 2. Projects The 235 adaptation and mitigation project analyzed Africa (n=111) Latin America (n=72) Asia (n=52) 60 60 60 40 40 40 20 20 20 0 0 0 Mitigation Adaptation Mixed Agriculture Mitigation Adaptation Forestry Mitigation Adaptation Number of projects 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Latin America Africa Asia 9-10
    • 10. 2. Projects Project consideration of the other goal More mitigation projects consider adaptation than the contrary Mitigation projects (n=123): Contribution to adaptation? No 71 Explicit 15 Explicit with evidence 37 Adaptation projects (n=112): Contribution to mitigation? Explicit with evidence 1 Synergies Possible synergies Explicit 22 No 89
    • 11. 2. Projects Example project  Adaptation project in Colombia: Agricultural adaptation • resilient agricultural practices • livelihood diversification • ecosystem restoration with flood-resistant trees for reducing flooding downstream People’s adaptation Ecosystem adaptation People’s adaptation “Reducing Risk and Vulnerability in Region of La Depresion Momposina, Colombia” Mitigation • expected outcomes likely to result in increased carbon storage in soils and trees (e.g. soil restoration, agroforestry and reforestation).
    • 12. 2. Projects Large potential for synergies  Potential contribution • A projects  M 78% - E.g., more carbon in forests, soils,… • M projects  A 100% - E.g., livelihood/income diversification, institution strengthening, capacity building,...  Larger potential for integrating A and M in: mixed forest-agriculture projects (landscape level) mitigation projects certified by CCB Gold Standards adaptation projects under the Adaptation Fund.
    • 13. 3. What is being done at the global level? Global funding Fund analysis, 22 interviews of major fund representatives
    • 14. 3. Funding Global funders perceive more the benefits of integrating adaptation into mitigation projects than the contrary Clear benefits of integrating A into M projects? “it will be difficult, if not impossible, to undertake REDD+ projects successfully without incorporating adaptation” (one fund manager) Clear benefits of integrating M into A projects?
    • 15. 3. Funding Funders’ interest in synergies but limited action so far Fund plans to better harness AM synergies? 37% Fund more likely to accept projects contributing to other goal? 32% Fund provides guidance on synergies to project developers? 11% Project template integrates adaptation and mitigation? 0% The integration of adaptation and mitigation will gain importance in the future Uncertain Agree Strongly agree
    • 16. 3. Funding Perceived barriers to integrating adaptation and mitigation  Different rationales => Different priority locations and sectors  Mitigation where most cost-effective and highest emissions  Adaptation where most vulnerable (equity, fairness)  Different agendas and budgets  Funding from different budgets or agencies, with either adaptation and mitigation agendas  Complexity and transaction costs  Risk of wanting to 'do everything' and losing focus  Lack of awareness and guidance  E.g. adaptation metrics
    • 17. Reasons for integrating adaptation and mitigation 1. Science 46% of reviewed papers mention 13 reasons (but more opinions than evidence) 2. Projects Reasons rarely mentioned 3. Funding Focus on benefits at multiple levels + policy coherence
    • 18. Reasons for integrating adaptation and mitigation 1. Science A  M A into Holistic approach, fairness Cost efficiency Dialogue and capacity building Permanence , lower risk Local relevance, legitimacy M National priorities, policy coherence M Carbon funding, certification into A Global benefits 2. Projects 3. Funding
    • 19. Conclusions 1. Science 2. Projects 3. Funding  Gaps in knowledge (e.g. social aspects)  Many projects can harness synergies. But no clear rationale for doing so  Limited action so far on synergies. But interest and potential to promote synergies in the future Stronger evidence needed, particularly at local level Beyond analyzing project documents: Monitoring implementation Need to also understand the role of national policies
    • 20. Thank you! bruno.locatelli@cirad.fr g.fedele@cgiar.org
    • 21. Further reading         Locatelli B., Imbach B., Wunder S., 2013. Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services in Costa Rica. Environmental Conservation http://www.journals.cambridge.org/article_S0376892913000234 Pramova E., Locatelli B., Djoudi H., Somorin O., 2012. Forests and trees for social adaptation to climate variability and change. WIREs Climate Change 3:581–596. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wcc.195/pdf Pramova E., Locatelli B., Brockhaus M., Fohlmeister S., 2012. Ecosystem services in the National Adaptation Programmes of Action. Climate Policy 12(4): 393-409. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14693062.2011.647848 Guariguata M.R., Locatelli B., Haupt F., 2012. Adapting tropical production forests to global climate change: risk perceptions and actions. International Forestry Review 14(1), 27-38. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/articles/AGuariguata1201.pdf Locatelli B., Evans V., Wardell A., Andrade A., Vignola R., 2011. Forests and Climate Change in Latin America: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation. Forests 2(1): 431-450. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/2/1/431/pdf CIFOR 2013. Mitigation–Adaptation Synergies. CIFOR Brief http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/factsheet/4263-factsheet.pdf Locatelli B., 2011. Synergies between adaptation and mitigation in a nutshell. COBAM Brief, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, 4p. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/cobambrief/3619-cobambrief.pdf Locatelli, B., Kanninen, M., Brockhaus, M., Colfer, C.J.P., Murdiyarso, D. and Santoso, H. 2008. Facing an uncertain future: How forests and people can adapt to climate change. Forest Perspectives no. 5. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, 97 p. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BLocatelli0801.pdf
    • 22. Pour en savoir plus  Pramova E., Locatelli B., Djoudi H., Somorin O., 2012. Le rôle des forêts et des arbres dans l’adaptation sociale à la variabilité et au changement climatiques. Brief. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor, Indonesia http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/infobrief/4023-infobrief.pdf  Locatelli B., 2011. Les synergies entre adaptation et atténuation en quelques mots. COBAM Brief, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, 4p. http://goo.gl/lcvTZ  Locatelli, B., Kanninen, M., Brockhaus, M., Colfer, C.J.P., Murdiyarso, D. and Santoso, H. 2009. Face à un avenir incertain : comment les forêts et les populations peuvent s'adapter au changement climatique http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BLocatelli0901F.pdf
    • 23. Para saber más  Pramova E., Locatelli B., Djoudi H., Somorin O., 2012. Bosques y árboles para la adaptación social al cambio y la variabilidad del clima. Brief. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor, Indonesia. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/infobrief/4024-infobrief.pdf  Locatelli, B., Evans, V., Wardell, A., Andrade, A., Vignola, R., 2011. Bosques y cambio climático en América Latina: Vincular adaptación y mitigación, In: Gobernanza forestal y REDD+: Desafíos para las políticas y mercados en América Latina. Petkova E., Larson A., Pacheco P. (eds.). CIFOR, Bogor, pp. 79-95. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BPetkova1101.pdf  Locatelli, B., Kanninen, M., Brockhaus, M., Colfer, C.J.P., Murdiyarso, D. and Santoso, H. 2009. Ante un futuro incierto: Cómo se pueden adaptar los bosques y las comunidades al cambio climático. http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BLocatelli0901.pdf

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