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Linking research to action: gender and adaptive collaborative management
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Linking research to action: gender and adaptive collaborative management

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CIFOR scientists are drawing lessons from experiments using Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) techniques to increase women’s participation in forestry in Cameroon, Uganda and Nicaragua. As a …

CIFOR scientists are drawing lessons from experiments using Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) techniques to increase women’s participation in forestry in Cameroon, Uganda and Nicaragua. As a result, women have been granted land and encouraged to plant trees of their choosing, and have been empowered to take up decision-making positions. This presentation discusses the challenges and opportunities for using ACM to promote gender equity.

CIFOR scientists Anne Marie Tiani and Peter Cronkleton gave this presentation on 20 June 2012 at a Rio+20 side event titled ‘Linking policy, practice and research for gender-responsive change in forestry’. The side event aimed to promote discussion and the exchange of ideas on concrete ways to address gender inequalities at different governance levels in forestry research and practice, and the risks and opportunities associated with different strategies and choice of partners.

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  • 1. Linking Research to Action: Gender and Adaptive Collaborative Management Anne Marie Tiani and Peter Cronkleton Rio+20, June 20, 2012THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 2. Overview ACM? Gender and ACM Experiences in applying ACM Food for thought THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 3. ACM: Adaptive Collaborative ManagementA response to complex systems, uncertainties and surprises.Adaptive Management: adjust management strategies to anticipate oradapt to changes (Wollenberg et al 2000). An experimental approach inwhich participants learn from implemented activities (Borrini-Feyerabend et al 2000).Collaborative management: involves interaction, dialogue and shareddecision making by multiple stakeholders at different scales andlocations. “a value-adding approach whereby people who have interests in a forestagree to act together to plan, observe and learn from theimplementation of their plans while recognizing that plans often fail toachieve their stated objectives.” (Colfer et al. , 2011:39) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 4. Approach: Participatory Action Research Definition: Research on or embedded in social change processes, for which data is systematically collected for more widespread sharing and impact. Facilitators1 Plan Reflect Plan Reflect Plan Reflect Boundary partners Objective / stakeholders2 of Change Reflection Monitoring Reflection MonitoringStarting point (vision) Action New Action New Action Ending point Core Tools: (solution) (German et al., 2010) • observation • Process documentation
  • 5. Gender and ACMACM/CIFOR chose deliberately to: Empower local communities in order to reduce vertical inequalities; Target the most vulnerable social groups to lessen horizontal inequalitiesGender differentiation →the main tangible socialdifferentiation; the main organizing principle ofsocial relations (Kronsell 2005): men and women havedifferent interests, rights, role, responsibilities…and power in forest management. THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 6. Gender and ACM Power asymmetries associated with gender relations, most often at the expense of women could be addressed with ACM. It is expected that ACM empowers women to claim more equity and access to decisions on forest management. ACM as a negotiation platform will help reconciling interests, rights, roles … of men and women, leading to a more balanced distribution of roles, responsibilities, opportunities and more visibility and recognition of the contribution of men and the women in forest management. requires process of long-term engagement, trust… for change THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 7. From theory to action: Using ACM for women’s empowerment1) The Campo-Ma’an Model Forest, Cameroon  7,710 km²; 60,000 inhabitants  2000: TOU, landscape management for conservation  Until 2000: Exclusionist management systems, open conflicts.  2001: ACM by CIFOR&IMFN.  Starting with vertical collaboration, then plan for empowering local communities  Women more interested in ACM  Institutional change: AMFN  Creation of the Campo-Ma’an Model Forest in 2005
  • 8. ACM in the Campo-Ma’an region Examples of PAR research questions How to mainstream women energies into biodiversity conservation and local development? What can women do by themselves and what expected from partners ?
  • 9. The Campo-Ma’an women platform (PLAFFERCAM) Creation of platforms for dialogue Example: Rural women platform (PLAFFERCAM) • Created in 2006 ; AMFNS • Currently 169 women associations Current activities of the platform • Development of local production activities • Fish, crayfish, and snails rearing • Valorisation of NTFP • Organisation of agricultural sectors • Production of mushroom • Rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems by the planting of 500 coconuts plants • Participation and networking • Presence in major policy fora at national and international levels. • Searching for development partners (RAFM, 2009)
  • 10. Gender tenure and community forest in Uganda and Nicaragua  ACM CIFOR Uganda and Nicaragua  Stakeholders: 6-9 communities, National Forestry Authority, private investors, NGOs.  Problems: low participation of women in community forest due to lack of tree tenure rights (Uganda) and absence in the decision making spheres (both).  ACM results:  Uganda: Women have been granted pieces of lands and encouraged to plant trees of their choice;  Women succeeded to make positions on executive committees, and many other decision making positions.  Nicaragua: People are empowered to talk openly about women and forest decision THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 11. Challenges and opportunities of using ACM to address gender inequities Opportunities  ACM is opportunity for less powerful people as it has the potential of empowering the voiceless, the poor and the marginalized (women and minorities being part of them).  Mutual Learning for communities’ empowerment  Particuliarly suited to gender because the gender issues require long term engagement THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 12. Challenges and opportunities of using ACM Challenges  Short duration projects for activities whose results are seen in the long run.  ACM is time (and personnel) consuming approaches: facilitator need to help with reflection and adjustments.  Funder requirements not flexible, or incompatible with ACM learning philosophy  Powerful groups participate only when in their own interest (Men may resist change or loss of power). THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 13. Food for thought! Assumptions: ACM → power balance, equity, more understanding among women or between men and women. In what conditions this works or does not work? Is it sustainable beyond the end of the facilitation and engagement? THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 14. www.cifor.cgiar.org THINKING beyond the canopy