Linkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests <ul><li>Vanessa Evans  1,  Bruno Locat...
Introduction <ul><li>Recent interest in linking adaptation and mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergies and conflicts at...
MITIGATION GhG concentrations Climate change Impacts Responses ADAPTATION <ul><li>Global ecosystem service: Carbon sequest...
Ecosystem-based Mitigation: Examples e.g., Afforestation & Reforestation (CDM) Increasing carbon in ecosystems t With refo...
Ecosystem-based Adaptation: Examples Soil conservation and hydroelectricity in Central America Forests and local people in...
Different scales for exploring the linkages between mitigation and adaptation <ul><li>Local scale: Projects and Communitie...
1. Local scale: Projects and Communities Mitigation Activities Impact on Societal Adaptation Impact on local ecosystem ser...
1. Local scale: Projects and Communities Adaptation Activities Impact on Mitigation Impact on ecosystems (carbon) and GhG ...
2. Landscape Scale: Synergies between ecosystem services (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005) Wood and other fibers Foo...
EbA Applications <ul><li>Columbia’s INAP – adopted an EbA to territorial planning  </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping ecosystem ser...
3. National initiatives <ul><li>Theoretically, synergies between adaptation-mitigation exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Carbo...
4. International initiatives <ul><li>Mitigation has been the primary focus of international climate change policies </li><...
Conclusions <ul><li>Many potential advantages of integrating one policy or one project for both A and M objectives </li></...
<ul><li>www.cifor.cgiar.org </li></ul>Gracias Thank you Terima Kasih
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Linkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests

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Presentation by Vanessa Evans , Bruno Locatelli , Andrew Wardell , Angela Andrade , and Raffaele Vignola,
Linkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests.
Oaxaca Workshop
Forest Governance, Decentralisation and REDD+ in
Latin America and the Caribbean
31 August – 03 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico.

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  • Les forêts tropicales ont un rôle particulier dans les réponses au changement climatique car elles sont l’un des rares secteurs concernés à la fois par l’atténuation et l’adaptation. Pour l’atténuation, les forêts jouent un rôle important car elles séquestrent du carbone, c’est un des services écosystémiques qu’elles fournissent à la planète. Conserver les forêts (c’est-à-dire réduire la déforestation) ou planter de nouvelles forêts contribue à réduire le changement climatique. En terme de politiques, ce rôle a été reconnu par exemple par le Mécanisme de Développement Propre pour les boisements et reboisement. La déforestation évitée est en cours de discussion au niveau internationale dans le cadre de la discussion REDD (Réduction des Emissions de la Déforestation et Dégradation forestière). Pour l’adaptation, les forêts jouent un rôle car elles fournissent des services écosystémiques locaux qui contribuent à réduire la vulnérabilité de la société. Par exemple, la régulation de l’eau ou la production de produits forestiers non ligneux réduisent la vulnérabilité locale. Ces services devraient être pris en compte dans l’adaptation. C’est ce qu’on appelle l’adaptation basée sur les écosystèmes, qui est un concept qui émerge actuellement dans les discussions sur l’adaptation. Comme ce thème est assez nouveau, je vais donner 2 exemples.
  • Linkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests

    1. 1. Linkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation in Latin American forests <ul><li>Vanessa Evans 1, Bruno Locatelli 2 , Andrew Wardell 1 , Angela Andrade 3 , and Raffaele Vignola 4 </li></ul><ul><li>1: CIFOR Indonesia, 2: CIRAD-CIFOR Indonesia, 3: Conservation International, 4: CATIE </li></ul>Oaxaca Workshop Forest Governance, Decentralisation and REDD+ in Latin America and the Caribbean 31 August – 03 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Recent interest in linking adaptation and mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergies and conflicts at different scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia - of both climate effects and shifts to low carbon development pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sector highly relevant to both mitigation & adaptation </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. MITIGATION GhG concentrations Climate change Impacts Responses ADAPTATION <ul><li>Global ecosystem service: Carbon sequestration. </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: CDM, REDD. </li></ul>Ecosystem-based Mitigation Ecosystem-based Adaptation <ul><li>Local ecosystem services: Water regulation, provision of goods... </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: EBA. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Ecosystem-based Mitigation: Examples e.g., Afforestation & Reforestation (CDM) Increasing carbon in ecosystems t With reforestation Carbon in ecosystem Baseline Avoiding loss of carbon from ecosystems Conservation Carbon in ecosystem t Baseline (deforestation) e.g., Avoided Deforestation (REDD)
    5. 5. Ecosystem-based Adaptation: Examples Soil conservation and hydroelectricity in Central America Forests and local people in Central Africa Mangroves and peatlands in Asia
    6. 6. Different scales for exploring the linkages between mitigation and adaptation <ul><li>Local scale: Projects and Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape scale: Ecosystem Services </li></ul><ul><li>National scale: Policies, NAPAs and NAMAs </li></ul><ul><li>International scale: Policies, funds and standards </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1. Local scale: Projects and Communities Mitigation Activities Impact on Societal Adaptation Impact on local ecosystem services and livelihoods <ul><li>Mitigation projects (CDM, REDD…) can help local communities to adapt to CC through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding social services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit sharing, payment cash/nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex: Costa Rica (Klinki mitigation forest project (voluntary carbon market, “Reforest the Tropics”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal adaptation to climate change through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification of incomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term incomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storm and fire risk reduction </li></ul></ul></ul>A M
    8. 8. 1. Local scale: Projects and Communities Adaptation Activities Impact on Mitigation Impact on ecosystems (carbon) and GhG emissions M A <ul><li>Adaptation projects can benefit mitigation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., protecting forests (thus carbon) for water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructural investments (dikes, dams) for coastal adaptation may adversely affect ecosystems and carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex: Colombia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation project (INAP Rio Blanco & Parque Chingaza, near Bogota) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of highland ecosystems, protection of water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution to mitigation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water for hydroelectricity (clean energy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of carbon in ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 2. Landscape Scale: Synergies between ecosystem services (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005) Wood and other fibers Food (plant and animals) Natural medicines… Global climate regulation (carbon) Water regulation Soil protection Disease regulation Local climate regulation… Spiritual and religious value Landscape beauty Cultural heritage… Provisioning Services Regulating services Cultural services Adaptation Mitigation Adaptation Adaptation? Forests
    10. 10. EbA Applications <ul><li>Columbia’s INAP – adopted an EbA to territorial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the synergies and trade-offs between carbon and local ecosystem services ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the roles of local ecosystem services in societal adaptation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still too little research on this </li></ul></ul></ul>Example in Costa Rica (Locatelli & Imbach, in prep.) Hotspots of synergies between carbon and water-related services
    11. 11. 3. National initiatives <ul><li>Theoretically, synergies between adaptation-mitigation exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Carbon-proofing” of adaptation projects, “Adaptation-proofing” of carbon funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In practice: Not much – recent initiatives by Mexico (PECC = NAMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NAPAs (National Adaptation Programs of Action) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the 468 projects presented in the 44 NAPAs submitted as of March 1, 2010: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>143 include activities related to ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 have an explicit mitigation objective and 8 present mitigation as a side benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In practice: Not much funding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NAMAs (National Appropriate Mitigation Actions) - NAMA Declaration, 9 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Our countries will undertake transparent NAMAs, subject to applicable MRV and prepare low carbon growth plans” (inc. Brazil and Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In practice: Not much follow-up </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 4. International initiatives <ul><li>Mitigation has been the primary focus of international climate change policies </li></ul><ul><li>UNFCCC, AWG-LCA, COP.15 … ‘adaptation measures should be developed considering….the synergies between A and M, and within which REDD options are particularly relevant’ (Position paper by Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Panama and Nicaragua ) </li></ul><ul><li>2% of CERs (CDM – Mitigation) used to finance the Adaptation Fund (Kyoto Protocol Art. 12.8) </li></ul><ul><li>International standards for carbon projects: adaptation was recently included (CCB) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Conclusions <ul><li>Many potential advantages of integrating one policy or one project for both A and M objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation needs adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD or CDM projects more likely to be sustainable if they reduce the vulnerability of forests and forest people to climate change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the need for adaptation is not yet perceived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation needs mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More funding may be available for mitigation than adaptation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be the most appealing reason for adding mitigation to adaptation activities </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>www.cifor.cgiar.org </li></ul>Gracias Thank you Terima Kasih
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