Nature’s anonymous donor: The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods


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Presentation by Frances Seymour,
Director General of CIFOR,
4 March 2011, IFAD
Objectives: Highlight the contribution of forests to rural livelihoods

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Nature’s anonymous donor: The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods

  1. 1. Nature’s anonymous donor:The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods Frances Seymour IFAD March 4, 2011
  2. 2. Presentation outline Brief introduction to CIFOR Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods Wood, food, energy, health Agricultural goods and services Employment CRP6: A framework for exploiting  opportunities and managing risk
  3. 3. Brief introduction to CIFOR
  4. 4. CIFOR…• an international organization headquartered in Bogor, Indonesia g q g ,• a member of the CGIAR• purpose to conduct research to inform policies and practices that affect  forests in developing countries forests in developing countries• staff of about 200 globally• annual budget of about $27 million
  5. 5. CIFOR’s visionWe envision a world where: Forests are high on the political  agenda People recognize the value of forests  for maintaining livelihoods and  for maintaining livelihoods and ecosystems Decisions that influence forests and  the people that depend on them are  based on solid science and principles  of good governance, and reflect the of good governance, and reflect the  perspectives of developing countries  and forest‐dependent people
  6. 6. CIFOR’s research domains1 Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change2 Enhancing the role of forests in adapting to climate change3 Improving livelihoods through smallholder and community forestry4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale5 Managing impacts of globalised trade and investment on forests and forest communities6 Sustainably managing tropical production forests
  7. 7. Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods
  8. 8. Net change in forest area 2005‐2010 (13 million ha lost per year) (13 million ha lost per year) Source: FAO Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010
  9. 9. On average, households inforest communities derive24% of their income fromforests – not captured in nationalaccounts CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network study of forest-based contributions to incomes in more than 8,000 households 40 study sites in 25 developing countries Income and other socio-economic and environmental data, collected on a quarterly basis over a 12-month period Majority f M j it of research carried out by 38 partners h i d tb t (mainly PhD students) from Asia, Africa & Latin America Launch planned for June 15, 2011 in London 15
  10. 10. Wood products pLocal communities exploit forests for construction timber, poles,boats, tools, baskets, and many other usesUlin (ironwood) species identified by local communities in EastKalimantan as one of the most valued forest products
  11. 11. FoodForests provide wild fruits, honey, mushrooms, tubers, grubs, andmany other diet supplementsFish are often the most important non timber forest product, and non-timber productfisheries depend on healthy forest ecosystems
  12. 12. • Bushmeat can constitute up to 80% of the protein and fat in the diets of households in rural areas of Central Africa• Research suggests importance of bushmeat to AIDS orphans in Southern Africa p THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. EnergyUp to 80 percent of rural energy needs in sub‐Saharan Africa are met by fuelwood and charcoal from forests
  14. 14. HealthForests provide: Access to nutritious food Access to medicinal plants Disease control l
  15. 15. Employment p y• Research in Cameroon highlights the significance of the domestic timber sector• Some 45,000 people derive income from the sector THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Forest-related employment alsoincludes Gathering non-timber forest products for sale Household processingSuch employment is especiallyimportant for women, as it iscompatible with other householdresponsibilities
  17. 17. Goods and services toagricultureForests and trees on farms provide fodder andenhance soil fertilityForests contain the preponderance of the Earth’s Earth sterrestrial biodiversity – including wild relativesof important crop speciesForests provide environmental services importantto the agriculture sector, including hydrologicalregulation and pollination
  18. 18. CRP6: A framework for exploiting opportunities and managing risk
  19. 19. CGIAR Research Program onForests, Trees,Forests Trees and Agroforestry
  20. 20. Conceptual framework
  21. 21. Component 1 Smallholder production systems and markets Research Enhancing management and production systems for themes smallholders (food security and nutrition) Increasing income generation and market integration for smallholders Improving policy and institutions to enhance social assets to secure rights in forest- and tree-dependent communities
  22. 22. Suppo t to s a sca e p oduce s Support to small‐scale producers• Research suggests significant potential to increase the share of value captured by small producers of timber and NTFPs• Example: Teak producers in Java need – better information on market requirements, and q , – access to financial services THINKING beyond the canopy
  23. 23. • Women’s roles in NTFP value chains often invisible• Danger of marginalizing women’s roles in processing through interventions focused on streamlining production and marketing THINKING beyond the canopy
  24. 24. 2 Management and conservation of forest and tree M t d ti ff t dtComponent resources Research themes Understanding threats to important tree species and formulating genetic conservation strategies Conserving and characterizing high-quality germplasm of important tree crops and their wild relatives Developing improved silvicultural, monitoring and management practices for multiple use Developing tools and methods to resolve conflicts over distribution of benefits and resource rights
  25. 25. CertificationCIFOR assisted th F i t d the Forestry Stewardship t St d hiCouncil’s efforts to refine FSC certificationstandards for small-scale operations withprospective application in Brazil Brazil,Cameroon, and Mexico.
  26. 26. Beyond timberCIFOR research on the potential of pmultiple-use management focuses onbarriers to integration of timber and Brazilnut production in the Western Amazon.
  27. 27. 3 Environmental services and l d E i t l i d landscapeComponent management Research Understanding drivers of forest transition themes Understanding the consequences of forest transition for environmental services and livelihoods Learning landscapes: dynamics of multi-functionality
  28. 28. Payments for Environmental Services S iCIFOR analysis reveals tenure constraints to PES-based approaches toforest conservation in Brazil.Competitiveness of REDD supply Bottleneck: Land tenure “chaos” Legend Unknown tenure 53% Indigenous lands 9% Agricultural settlements 10% PA for sustainable use 9% PA f i bl 9% Cities Community lands <1% Roads State limits Registered properties 1% Water Sources: IBAMA, INCRA 2007, Soares-Filho et al. 2006
  29. 29. TenureResearch shows that strengthening community rights to forestscan lead to “win-win” outcomes:• improved forest condition• enhanced local incomes THINKING beyond the canopy
  30. 30. • However, research also shows that communities require: – Support to defend their new rights, and to mobilize forest pp g , resource assets to generate income; and – Relief from unnecessary regulatory burdens THINKING beyond the canopy
  31. 31. Component 4 Climate change adaptation and mitigation Research Harnessing forests, trees and agroforestry for themes climate change mitigation Enhancing climate change adaptation Understanding synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation
  32. 32. Risks and opportunitiesDeforestation and land use changecontribute 12–18% of the world’s totalannual carbon emissionsREDD+ could provide channel significant ld id h l i ifi trevenue flows to rural communitiesForests themselves are threatened byclimate changeForests provide an important source ofresilience for adaptation to climate change
  33. 33. Learning from REDD: A global comparative analysisCIFOR research input to theIndonesia – Norway Letter ofIntent on REDD
  34. 34. Ecosystem-based padaptationJoint CIFOR-CATIE research on tropicalforests and climate change adaptation inf d li h d i iHonduras influenced the design of one ofthe first projects ever approved by theUNFCCC sUNFCCC’s Adaptation Fund Board Board.
  35. 35. Component 5 Impacts of trade and investment on forests and people Research Understanding the processes and impacts of forest- themes related trade and investment Enhancing responses and policy options to mitigate the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts of trade and investment
  36. 36. Trade and investmentCIFOR research on the implications ofbiofuel expansion on forests and forestcommunities
  37. 37. Law enforcement • CIFOR research highlighted danger of local communities losing livelihood from crackdowns targeting “the little guy with the chainsaw the chainsaw” THINKING beyond the canopy
  38. 38. Cross cutting themes:GenderApproach: Gender disaggregated data collection and analysis Gender appropriate research methods Partnerships with key organizations to build capacity & share knowledgeExample of research:CIFOR study on barriers to women’sparticipation in forest decision-making and decision makingbenefit-sharing in Nicaragua and Uganda
  39. 39. Cross-cutting approach:Sentinel Landscapes Follows key recommendation from the 2009 social science “stripe” review stripe commissioned by the CGIAR Science Council Builds on the CGIAR s comparative CGIAR’s advantage to conduct long-term, comparative research Generates data about the drivers and impacts of land use change, as well as approaches to threats and benefits for environmental resilience and the poor Integrates research and impact pathways to exploit potential synergies across all CRP6 components
  40. 40. International, national and local partnershipsLevels/Types Research Partners Policy and Practice  Knowledge‐sharing  Partners P Partners PInternational CIRAD, IRD, CSIRO, Forest  CPF, FAO, UNEP, World  BBC World Service  Landscape Denmark,  Bank, UN‐REDD, IPCC,  Trust, Panos, UN‐ IUFRO, Norwegian  IUFRO Norwegian FSC, IUCN  FSC IUCN REDD, CPF, IUCN REDD CPF IUCN University of Life  SciencesRegional CATIE, Amazon Initiative,  AFF, COMIFAC, Asia  RECOFTC, STCP, CATIE  ANAFE, FARA, SEANAFE;  Forest Partnership,  ASARECA, CORAF,  ECOWAS SAARD, STCP,  SA/AP/LAFORGENCountry or  NARS, local/national  NARS, government,  Local NGOs and local research organizations,  CBOs, NGOs, private  networks,  FORDA sector companies  government
  41. 41. Communications and knowledge gsharing “Hurricane” model enabled by increased connectivity i i
  42. 42. Impact pathway example: climate change
  43. 43.