Global Comparative Study on REDD - Policy Network Analysis
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Global Comparative Study on REDD - Policy Network Analysis

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Hear more about the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ with special focus on the Policy Network Analysis with examples from Vietnam, Papa New Guinea, Cameroon and many others.

Hear more about the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ with special focus on the Policy Network Analysis with examples from Vietnam, Papa New Guinea, Cameroon and many others.

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  • Method: <br /> Identified 66 REDD+ policy actors in PNG <br /> Used survey and interview data to allocate actors into ‘advocacy coalitions’ based on shared beliefs and whether advocating for business-as-usual or transformational change <br /> Used survey data on perceived influence to calculate reputational power of each actor and then average for each advocacy coalition <br /> Results: <br /> Identified four advocacy coalitions – 2 promting BAU and 2 promoting TC: <br /> ‘Status Quo’: Most powerful, promotes business-as-usual <br /> ‘Sustainable Development’: Moderate influence; promotes transformational change <br /> ‘Sustainable livelihoods’: Moderate influence; promotes transformational change <br /> ‘Carbon Entrepreneurs’: Low influence, promotes aspects of business-as-usual and transformational change <br /> So what?: <br /> Although the transformational change coalitions are less powerful than the BAU coalitions, the TC coalition does include the organisation perceived to be most influential in the REDD+ policy arena in PNG and includes other influential organisations <br /> Drawing on the Advocacy Coalition Framework, we can examine potential pathways to transformation change- these include members of different coalitions forming ‘coalitions of convenience’ that can enhance policy learning and may lead to changes in beliefs about how forests should be used and managed; organisations may defect from one coalitions to another, bringing their power and resources, etc <br />
  • Method: <br /> Identified 66 REDD+ policy actors in PNG <br /> Used survey and interview data to allocate actors into ‘advocacy coalitions’ based on shared beliefs and whether advocating for business-as-usual or transformational change <br /> Used survey data on perceived influence to calculate reputational power of each actor and then average for each advocacy coalition <br /> Results: <br /> Identified four advocacy coalitions – 2 promting BAU and 2 promoting TC: <br /> ‘Status Quo’: Most powerful, promotes business-as-usual <br /> ‘Sustainable Development’: Moderate influence; promotes transformational change <br /> ‘Sustainable livelihoods’: Moderate influence; promotes transformational change <br /> ‘Carbon Entrepreneurs’: Low influence, promotes aspects of business-as-usual and transformational change <br /> So what?: <br /> Although the transformational change coalitions are less powerful than the BAU coalitions, the TC coalition does include the organisation perceived to be most influential in the REDD+ policy arena in PNG and includes other influential organisations <br /> Drawing on the Advocacy Coalition Framework, we can examine potential pathways to transformation change- these include members of different coalitions forming ‘coalitions of convenience’ that can enhance policy learning and may lead to changes in beliefs about how forests should be used and managed; organisations may defect from one coalitions to another, bringing their power and resources, etc <br />
  • International actors are central in controlling and facilitating information flow, while civil society organizations are peripheral to the network. This clearly shows a lack of a national ownership of the process in which national ownership is a condition for success. <br />
  • International actors are central in controlling and facilitating information flow, while civil society organizations are peripheral to the network. This clearly shows a lack of a national ownership of the process in which national ownership is a condition for success. <br />
  • All actors had some involvement in at least one of the three main REDD+ policy events, suggesting that the interests of different groups were presented and participation was good. However, only a sub-set of actors indicated that they were actively engaged in the REDD+ decision-making processes happening in these events. Many important actors are excluded in decision making. <br />
  • All actors had some involvement in at least one of the three main REDD+ policy events, suggesting that the interests of different groups were presented and participation was good. However, only a sub-set of actors indicated that they were actively engaged in the REDD+ decision-making processes happening in these events. Many important actors are excluded in decision making. <br />
  • (N7) Collaboration reveals organizations that others most often cooperate with on REDD-related issues and activities. The extent of collaboration also influences the degree to which organizations are informed about, are engaged in, and can have direct input into REDD+ policy debates and issues. This figure shows the extent of collaboration among actors and highlights those actors who collaborate most frequently. All other actors, including many CSOs, government actors outside the forestry sector, and all actors from the private and educational/research sector, are found in the periphery. The marginalization of these important sectors and stakeholders has strong implications for the equity and effectiveness of future REDD+ implementation. <br />
  • (N7) Collaboration reveals organizations that others most often cooperate with on REDD-related issues and activities. The extent of collaboration also influences the degree to which organizations are informed about, are engaged in, and can have direct input into REDD+ policy debates and issues. This figure shows the extent of collaboration among actors and highlights those actors who collaborate most frequently. All other actors, including many CSOs, government actors outside the forestry sector, and all actors from the private and educational/research sector, are found in the periphery. The marginalization of these important sectors and stakeholders has strong implications for the equity and effectiveness of future REDD+ implementation. <br />
  • This network shows all reported ties between organizations in the province that are reciprocated by any positive tie (ie information sharing, collaboration, scientific information provision, and resource exchanges). At this level of aggregation, the central position of the Provincial REDD+ Committee, chaired by the governor, is clear. Members of executive agencies in Central Kalimantan frequently referred to the Governor’s policy that the Governor’s Office should be the “Single Commander” for REDD+ in the province. While the government has close ties with several organizations based abroad (A), organizations based in Central Kalimantan (K) seem more peripheral. Notably, Indonesian NGOs are mostly found in a cluster on the left-hand side of the network. More recently, one of these organizations, AMAN, has become increasingly influential due to its expertise in traditional land tenure issues. Our survey suggests that while connections with actors from abroad were relatively strong at the time of the research, connections with diverse parts of the province were less so. This reportedly seems to have been changing through the efforts of environmental NGOs based in the province. <br />
  • This network shows all reported ties between organizations in the province that are reciprocated by any positive tie (ie information sharing, collaboration, scientific information provision, and resource exchanges). At this level of aggregation, the central position of the Provincial REDD+ Committee, chaired by the governor, is clear. Members of executive agencies in Central Kalimantan frequently referred to the Governor’s policy that the Governor’s Office should be the “Single Commander” for REDD+ in the province. While the government has close ties with several organizations based abroad (A), organizations based in Central Kalimantan (K) seem more peripheral. Notably, Indonesian NGOs are mostly found in a cluster on the left-hand side of the network. More recently, one of these organizations, AMAN, has become increasingly influential due to its expertise in traditional land tenure issues. Our survey suggests that while connections with actors from abroad were relatively strong at the time of the research, connections with diverse parts of the province were less so. This reportedly seems to have been changing through the efforts of environmental NGOs based in the province. <br />
  • A dense network, with many different actors, are seen as a source of REDD+ relevant information and dominance by a handful of national research instates (light blue), international organizations (teal), government (pink), national environmental NGOs (dark green) and international environmental ngos (dark blue). The most important players ended up being one national research institute (#4), the Ministry of Environment (#3), FAO (tied with MINAM) and CIFOR (#1).  The results allow a snapshot of who is being consulted but also one way to evaluate the impact of the research & reporting being carried out on REDD+ by the different actors. <br />
  • A dense network, with many different actors, are seen as a source of REDD+ relevant information and dominance by a handful of national research instates (light blue), international organizations (teal), government (pink), national environmental NGOs (dark green) and international environmental ngos (dark blue). The most important players ended up being one national research institute (#4), the Ministry of Environment (#3), FAO (tied with MINAM) and CIFOR (#1).  The results allow a snapshot of who is being consulted but also one way to evaluate the impact of the research & reporting being carried out on REDD+ by the different actors. <br />

Global Comparative Study on REDD - Policy Network Analysis Global Comparative Study on REDD - Policy Network Analysis Presentation Transcript

  • Global Comparative Study on REDD+ Oslo REDD Exchange 29-30 October 2013, Oslo, Norway
  • REDD+ Policy Network Analysis (PNA) •Analysis underway in 8 countries (Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Peru, Papua New Guinea, Tanzania, Vietnam, >1000 interviews hours) •Assesses relational and structural aspects of actors and the REDD arena and considers implications for the 3E+ content of REDD strategies.
  • REDD+ Policy Network Analysis (PNA) Examines questions including: •Who is involved in national REDD policy making? •What are their perceptions, interests, and power relations? •What are their networks of information and influence? Repeated over time, this method can assess dynamics and power relations over time. Results of policy outcomes emerging from CIFOR’s global comparative study and other analysis will allow us to assess efficiency outcomes.
  • Papua New Guinea (PNG) Presence and influence of four advocacy coalitions: Two promoting business as usual (BAU) and two advocating transformational change. Although the transformational change coalitions are less powerful than the BAU coalitions, the former includes the organisation perceived to be most influential in the REDD+ policy arena within the country. Babon, A et al. 2013. Advocacy coalitions, REDD+, and forest governance in Papua New Guinea: How likely is transformational change? (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Papua New Guinea (PNG) Presence and influence of four advocacy coalitions: Two promoting business as usual (BAU) and two advocating transformational change. Drawing on the Advocacy Coalition Framework, we examine potential pathways to transformation change: members of different coalitions forming ‘coalitions of convenience’ that can enhance policy learning and may lead to changes in beliefs about how forests should be used and managed. Organisations may defect from one coalition to another, bringing their power and resources together. Although the transformational change coalitions are less powerful than the BAU coalitions, the former includes the organisation perceived to be most influential in the REDD+ policy arena within the country. Babon, A et al. 2013. Advocacy coalitions, REDD+, and forest governance in Papua New Guinea: How likely is transformational change? (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Cameroon Dkamela, G.P. et al. 2013. Lessons for REDD+ from Cameroon’s past forestry law reform: a political economy analysis. (under review in Ecology & Society) Information flow in REDD+ policy arena WWF MINFOF Betweenness refers to the extent to which other actors lies on the shortest distance between pairs of actors in the network, indicating a favorable position of a specific actor in facilitating and controlling communication flows and high scores indicate a position of brokerage. IUCN
  • Cameroon Dkamela, G.P. et al. 2013. Lessons for REDD+ from Cameroon’s past forestry law reform: a political economy analysis. (under review in Ecology & Society) Information flow in REDD+ policy arena WWF MINFOF International actors are central in controlling and facilitating information flow across organisations, while civil society organizations are peripheral to the network. This lack of participation indicates that national ownership of the REDD+ process is very limited. Betweenness refers to the extent to which other actors lies on the shortest distance between pairs of actors in the network, indicating a favorable position of a specific actor in facilitating and controlling communication flows and high scores indicate a position of brokerage. IUCN
  • Tanzania Policy positions and REDD+ discourse coalitions Coalition for nested REDD+ rewards Protest event participants ”All REDD+ accounting and rewards should go through the national government.” ”REDD+ schemes should only be financed through funds”. Agreement = solid line; Disagreement = dashed line. The size of a node represents the influence of the actor (normalized in-degree centrality of influence data). Coalition for centralized REDD+ rewards Rantala, S. and Di Gregorio, M. 2013. Multistakeholder environmental governance in action: REDD+ discourse coalitions in Tanzania. (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Tanzania Policy positions and REDD+ discourse coalitions Coalition for nested REDD+ rewards Protest event participants ”All REDD+ accounting and rewards should go through the national government.” We demonstrate how different actors have varying positions relating to polarizing statements on REDD+ financial flows and related discourse coalitions in Tanzania. Organizations outside of the coalition Agreement = figure were boundaries as indicated in thesolid line; ”REDD+ schemes Disagreement = dashed line. should only be considered neutral. size of a node represents The financed through funds”. the influence of the actor (normalized in-degree centrality of influence data). Coalition for centralized REDD+ rewards Rantala, S. and Di Gregorio, M. 2013. Multistakeholder environmental governance in action: REDD+ discourse coalitions in Tanzania. (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Vietnam Actor’s involvement in REDD+ decision making Pham, T.T. et al. 2013. The REDD+ Policy arena in Vietnam: participation of policy actors. (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Vietnam Actor’s involvement in REDD+ decision making All actors had some involvement in at least one of the three main REDD+ policy discussions, suggesting that the interests of different groups were presented and participation was good. However, only a sub-set of actors indicated that they were actively engaged in the REDD+ decisionmaking processes, with many important actors excluded. Pham, T.T. et al. 2013. The REDD+ Policy arena in Vietnam: participation of policy actors. (under review in Ecology & Society)
  • Bushley, B. 2013. REDD+ policymaking in Nepal: Toward statecentric, polycentric, or market-oriented forest governance? (under review in Ecology & Society) Nepal Collaboration Framework WWF WWF DFID DFID WWF WWF DNPWC DNPWC NEFIN NEFIN RECOFTC RECOFTC DoF DoF NFA NFA KEY: ORGANIZATION TYPES Government Civil Society Organizations BusinessAssociations Education/ Research International NGOs Multilateral/ Bilateral Donors FECOFUN FECOFUN REDD REDD Cell Cell degree centrality & core/periphery status, n=34
  • Bushley, B. 2013. REDD+ policymaking in Nepal: Toward statecentric, polycentric, or market-oriented forest governance? (under review in Ecology & Society) Nepal Collaboration Framework WWF WWF DNPWC DNPWC RECOFTC RECOFTC The extent of collaboration influences the degree to which DFID DFID organizations are informed about, are engaged in, and can have direct input into REDD+ policy debates and issues. WWF WWF Our research shows the extent of collaboration between actors and highlights those who collaborate most frequently. All other actors, including many CSOs, government actors outside NEFIN NEFIN the forestry sector, and all actors from the private and educational/research sector, are found in the periphery. The marginalization of these important sectors and stakeholders may limit both, equity and effectiveness ,of future REDD+ DoF DoF implementation. NFA NFA KEY: ORGANIZATION TYPES Government Civil Society Organizations BusinessAssociations Education/ Research International NGOs Multilateral/ Bilateral Donors FECOFUN FECOFUN REDD REDD Cell Cell degree centrality & core/periphery status, n=34
  • Indonesia Fragmentation in Information exchange network Exchange of information very limited, actors of same types mainly speak together, no ‘real’ exchange WHY? •Organizations are not aware of each other? •Some are not seen as important? •Respect??? 4 distinct clusters Homophily strong in national government cluster Only one bridge Moeliono, M. et al. 2013. Information Networks and Power: Confronting the ‘wicked problem’ of REDD+ in Indonesia. (under review in Ecology & Society).
  • Central Kalimantan, Indonesia Inter-organisational Collaboration Gallemore, C. et al. 2013. Beyond the “Single Commander”? Cross-Scale Deliberation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia,” (under review in Ecology & Society) This network shows all reported linkages (ie information sharing, scientific information provision and resource exchanges between organizations in the province. The policy at the Governor’s Office is referred as the “Single Commander” for REDD+ in the province. While the government has close ties with several organizations based abroad (A), organizations based in Central Kalimantan (K) seem more peripheral. Notably, Indonesian NGOs are mostly found in a cluster on the left-hand side of the network. More recently, one of these organizations, AMAN, has become increasingly influential due to its expertise in traditional land tenure issues.
  • Central Kalimantan, Indonesia Inter-organisational Collaboration Gallemore, C. et al. 2013. Beyond the “Single Commander”? Cross-Scale Deliberation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia,” (under review in Ecology & Society) Our survey suggests that while connections with actors from abroad were relatively strong at the time of the research, connections with diverse parts of the province were less so. This reportedly seems to have been changing through the efforts of environmental NGOs based in the province. This network shows all reported linkages (ie information sharing, scientific information provision and resource exchanges between organizations in the province. The policy at the Governor’s Office is referred as the “Single Commander” for REDD+ in the province. While the government has close ties with several organizations based abroad (A), organizations based in Central Kalimantan (K) seem more peripheral. Notably, Indonesian NGOs are mostly found in a cluster on the left-hand side of the network. More recently, one of these organizations, AMAN, has become increasingly influential due to its expertise in traditional land tenure issues.
  • Brazil Collaboration Network The triangles represent the main actors in the network, those with the highest in-degree centrality values. Gebara, M.F. et al. 2013. Networks, actors and power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil. (under review in Ecology & Society).
  • Brazil Collaboration Network We show the importance of intermediary organizations, that can bridge different networks parts and are brokers – we also demonstrate how the private sector and many government actors are outsiders. The triangles represent the main actors in the network, those with the highest in-degree centrality values. Gebara, M.F. et al. 2013. Networks, actors and power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil. (under review in Ecology & Society).
  • Menton, M. et al. 2013. Policy networks in Peru. Unpublished project report. Peru Scientific Information Network CIFOR IIAP IIAP FAO FAO Min. Min. Envt Envt A dense network with different actors (national research institutes, international organisations, governments, national and international NGOs) are sources of REDD+ information. The most important players constitute one national research institute, Ministry of Environment, FAO (tied with MINAM) and CIFOR.
  • Menton, M. et al. 2013. Policy networks in Peru. Unpublished project report. Peru Scientific Information Network CIFOR FAO FAO IIAP IIAP The results from the analysis of scientific information exchange allow a snapshot of who is being consulted Min. and trusted to provide evidence over Min. Envt contested issues. Envt It also represents a way to evaluate the impact of organizations carrying A dense network with different actors (national research institutes, international out research of REDD+ organisations, governments, national and international NGOs) are sourcesrelevant to REDD+. information. The most important players constitute one national research institute, Ministry of Environment, FAO (tied with MINAM) and CIFOR.
  • Acknowledgements This work is part of the policy component of CIFOR’s global comparative study on REDD (GCS). The methods and guidelines used in this research component were designed by Maria Brockhaus, Monica Di Gregorio and Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff. Parts of the methodology are adapted from the research protocol for media and network analysis designed by COMPON (‘Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks’). Case leaders: Thuy Thu Pham (Nepal), Thuy Thu Pham & Moira Moeliono (Vietnam), Thuy Thu Pham and Guillaume Lestrelin (Laos), Daju Resosudarmo & Moira Moeliono (Indonesia), Andrea Babon (PNG), Peter Cronkleton, Kaisa Korhonen-Kurki, Pablo Pacheco (Bolivia), Mary Menton (Peru), Sven Wunder & Peter May (Brazil), Samuel Assembe & Jolien Schure (Cameroon), Samuel Assembe (DRC), Salla Rantala (Tanzania), Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff (Mozambique), Suwadu Sakho-Jimbira & Houria Djoudi (Burkina Faso), Arild Angelsen (Norway). Special thanks to our national partners from REDES, CEDLA, Libelula and DAR, REPOA, UEM, CODELT, ICEL, ForestAction, CIEM, CERDA, Son La FD, UPNG, NRI-PNG, and UMB. Thanks to contributors to case studies, analysis and review : Levania Santoso, Tim Cronin, Giorgio Indrarto, Prayekti Murharjanti, Josi Khatarina, Irvan Pulungan, Feby Ivalerina, Justitia Rahman, Muhar Nala Prana, Caleb Gallemore (Indonesia), Nguyen Thi Hien, Nguyen Huu Tho, Vu Thi Hien, Bui Thi Minh Nguyet, Nguyen Tuan Viet and Huynh Thu Ba (Vietnam), Dil Badhur, Rahul Karki, Bryan Bushley, Naya Paudel (Nepal), Daniel McIntyre, Gae Gowae, Nidatha Martin, Nalau Bingeding, Ronald Sofe, Abel Simon (PNG), Walter Arteaga, Bernado Peredo, Jesinka Pastor (Bolivia), Maria Fernanda Gebara, Brent Millikan, Bruno Calixto, Shaozeng Zhang (Brazil), Hugo Piu, Javier Perla, Daniela Freundt, Eduardo Burga Barrantes, Talía Postigo Takahashi (Peru), Guy Patrice Dkamela, Felicien Kengoum (Cameroon), Felicien Kabamba, Augustin Mpoyi, Angelique Mbelu (DRC), Demetrius Kweka, Therese Dokken, Rehema Tukai, George Jambiya, Riziki Shemdoe, (Tanzania), Almeida Sitoe, Alda Salomão (Mozambique), Mathurin Zida, Michael Balinga (Burkina Faso), Laila Borge (Norway). Special thanks to Efrian Muharrom, Sofi Mardiah, Christine Wairata, Ria Widjaja-Adhi, Cecilia Luttrell, Frances Seymour, Lou Verchot, Markku Kanninen, Elena Petkova, Arild Angelsen, Jan Boerner, Anne Larson, Martin Herold, Rachel Carmenta, Juniarta Tjajadi, Cynthia Maharani