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Generating and communicating science  information to support policy and      decision-making in forestry
The policy change     process‘The whole life of policy isa chaos of purposes andaccidents. It is not at all amatter of the...
The gap between  knowledge and     practice‘Constraints to successfulmanagement of sustainableforest management overthe ye...
Who needs to know?Policy knowledge . . . is not effective if retained in the  hands of the producer.Policy makers . . . do...
Research for change…
Uptake / Adoption CurvesResearch shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’has adopted an innovation, the whole pr...
The Impact Pathway model           Inputs(e.g. finance, staff, equipment,         systems, etc…)          Outputs  (e.g. p...
In fact it is probably more like this…                                                                               KASA:...
From Outputs to Impacts
Impact PathwayThe bushmeat issue Keynote to CBD     (2001)              Liaison group                  Support from       ...
Impact Pathway: inputs to outputs         Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Capacity building,Sentinel l...
Research outputs Overall, the production  of science outputs is not  a major issuebut Publication results can  be improv...
Research outputs: New (?) Thinking                      10000                                                          Or...
Impact Pathway: outputs to outcomes         Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Capacity building,Sentinel...
Outputs to outcomes We are generally able     Why?  to claim a few             • Improper project design  significant ou...
Outputs to outcomes: “Forcing”                 Opportunities   Project for change              -                         ...
Impact Pathway: outcomes to                        impacts         Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Cap...
Outcomes to impacts: ouch!                               “The evidence of impacts of CGIAR Quantification of impact     r...
Outcomes to impacts: Some Hints Specific research             Outcomes as impacts  linking outcomes to            on a d...
How to foster adoption andimplementation    of goodresearch based practices and   policies?
Outreach and uptake efforts that     have little or no effect Educational materials (distribution of recommendations for ...
Interventions of variable            effectiveness Audit and feedback (or any summary of  performance) The use of local ...
Consistently effective outreach                efforts. Educational outreach ‘visits’ ‘Social’ media (blogs, twitter, fa...
Publications and impact?
PublicationsNumber of downloads /yr
Publications                                                                             Download                         ...
Impact on scientific publication
Web-based outreach           4,000,000                New Blog           3,500,000                                        ...
Journalist workshops• 2011: 2 media workshops in Indonesia trained 37  journalists (Bali & Central Kalimantan)• 2012: 3 me...
Conclusions• Passive dissemination of information is generally  ineffective• Best practice for dissemination and promoting...
www.cifor.org/crp6                     THINKING beyond the canopy
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Generating and communicating science information to support policy and decision-making in forestry

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Communicating science information is vital for supporting policy and decision-making in forestry, because there is still a sizeable gap between knowledge and uptake/adoption. This presentation explores the impact pathway, particularly in relation to CRP6 (the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry), emphasising that policy knowledge is only effective when shared appropriately.

CIFOR scientist and CRP6 Director Robert Nasi gave this presentation on 28 June 2012 at the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and African Forest Forum (AFF) Forest Policy Day, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in conjunction with the IUFRO-FORNESSA Regional Congress. The theme of the forest policy day was “The policy-science interface for sustainable forest management in Africa”. For more information about CRP6, please visit www.cifor.org/crp6

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  • @CorkerCEH I am not sure we can speak of cultural changes. What we try to change are inappropriate policies or inappropriate management practices. In terms of 'cultural change' we could eventually speak about large paradigm shifts (the most obvious in the forestry sector has been that for a long time forest management was the kingdom of foresters who knew all the technical issues but the societal demands following the rise of sustainability have forced forest management outside of the hands of foresters and forests have become an international public good. Too important to be left in the hands of technical people...).
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  • @CIFOR Yes, and I guess another factor is that technology drives (has always driven ?) cultural change (printing press etc). What cultural changes have occured following your own interventions ? I realise this is a complicated question, but there is an important element of self-awarenness and community repsonsibility that appears to be manifest in the cultures you work with. In the UK we are working on citizen science projects (via smart phones), and whilst the incidence of engagement is relatively high there is less evidence of actual change in behaviour (difficult to assess). Have you looked at this with your constituents ? Best regards, Nicholas
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  • @CorkerCEH I would say yes but the reasons for adoption are likely to differ widely one case from the other. They are unlikely to be replicable either as they depend on the overall context (e.g. economic crisis or time of plenty) and on the current conventional wisdom.

    An intervention is unlikely to be advantageous for everybody but it seems logical to believe that if a large proportion of people benefit from it, adoption will be facilitated.

    Last part of the question is interesting and reflects human nature's tendency to repeat recipes that did work in the past (note that we consistently repeat our own mistakes). This where point one above comes to life... This is not because it worked in the past that it'll work today.
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  • @CIFOR Do you think factors influencing rate of adoption can be identified ? I'm thinking that the 'openess' of a group, or the 'less cluttered' with other considerations may be a factor. If the intervention is clearly identified as being advantageous (culturally sensitive) does this lead to wider adoption, and does this initial adoption in itself forge a path for future interventions ?



    Nicholas
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  • @CorkerCEH I believe the curve describing adoption and the role of innovation is transferable to many sectors or products. It shows that innovation is only one element of the adoption. Innovation needs to reach a certain number of people through various promoting/adopting mechanisms (of which technology transfer is one) before getting a life in itself and continue climbing the adoption curve.
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Transcript of "Generating and communicating science information to support policy and decision-making in forestry"

  1. 1. Generating and communicating science information to support policy and decision-making in forestry
  2. 2. The policy change process‘The whole life of policy isa chaos of purposes andaccidents. It is not at all amatter of the rationalimplementation of the so-called decisions throughselected strategies.’Clay and Schaffer (1984).
  3. 3. The gap between knowledge and practice‘Constraints to successfulmanagement of sustainableforest management overthe years largely relate tothe adoption ofrecommendations - not thegeneration of ‘bestpractice’. Dawkins & Phillip (1998).
  4. 4. Who needs to know?Policy knowledge . . . is not effective if retained in the hands of the producer.Policy makers . . . do not generally go about seeking knowledge to assist them in understanding every decision they must make.Policy knowledge . . . must be expressed, communicated, channeled, explained or otherwise distributed to policymakers if it is to affect policy decisions (Webber 1991).
  5. 5. Research for change…
  6. 6. Uptake / Adoption CurvesResearch shows that when 10 to 25% of a target ‘population’has adopted an innovation, the whole process becomes self-sustaining.ONLY THEN DO ‘GOOD PRODUCTS SELL THEMSELVES’ Cumulative Early Late Majority Majority Number of users Early Adopters Laggards Frequency Pioneers Time
  7. 7. The Impact Pathway model Inputs(e.g. finance, staff, equipment, systems, etc…) Outputs (e.g. publication, training, databases) Impacts SRF (e.g. reduced deforestation 4 system-level Outcomes and degradation) (e.g. forests and tree outcomes resources are better managed)
  8. 8. In fact it is probably more like this… KASA: knowledge, attitudes, skills, aspirationsFrom http://boru.pbworks.com/w/page/13774906/Learning-Selection-Change-Model
  9. 9. From Outputs to Impacts
  10. 10. Impact PathwayThe bushmeat issue Keynote to CBD (2001) Liaison group Support from Bushmeat CBD on NTFP African Parties priority at COP 9 (2008) Scientific work: Liaison group PhDs, review, on bushmeat papers, etc. (2009) (2002-2008) Recommendation COP 10 Decision to SBSTTA (2010) (2010) Scientific work with actors Tools, guidelines (2012, OT) Policy changes (2009-2011) (2011-2012) Improved, more sustainable practices (2012-)
  11. 11. Impact Pathway: inputs to outputs Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Capacity building,Sentinel landscapes Original research and capacity building with research partners Outputs Outcomes (e.g. publication, training, (e.g. forests and tree resources are better Impacts databases) (e.g. reduced deforestation managed) and degradation) SRF 4 system-level outcomes
  12. 12. Research outputs Overall, the production of science outputs is not a major issuebut Publication results can be improved in terms of quality and quantity Other types of outputs (e.g. capacity building, gender) are not yet adequately considered and/or recorded THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Research outputs: New (?) Thinking 10000  Original scientific pieces H factor: D. Tilman 51 in reputable journals with N. Stern 19 good research partners B. Lomborg 09 1000  Syntheses pieces channeled through “big”Number of citations 100 players (e.g. WB)  Communication strategy in place before publishing 10 • “Derived” products for non- science users (policy briefs, blogs, etc.) 1 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49  New incentive structures Stern Lomborg Tilman for rewarding outputs THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. Impact Pathway: outputs to outcomes Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Capacity building,Sentinel landscapes Original research with partners Outputs Outcomes (e.g. publication, training, (e.g. forests and tree resources are better Impacts databases) (e.g. reduced deforestation managed) and degradation) Synthesis research and outreach SRF 4 system-level outcomes
  15. 15. Outputs to outcomes We are generally able  Why? to claim a few • Improper project design significant outcomes per year • Passive expectations of outcomesbut • Inappropriate This is a painful communication or outreach exercise • Lag time between outputs and adoption Few of these outcomes • Change in donor or societal are real IPGs interests Supporting evidence is • “It simply didn’t work…” somewhat scant and/or attribution disputable THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Outputs to outcomes: “Forcing” Opportunities Project for change - Improved certification schemes FSC, UNEP, CIFOR; GEF funded Write for “impact” - Brazil, Mexico, Cameroon - Preparation phase 2002-2004 Do not over-commit - - Several stakeholder workshops Agreement on what needs to change (e.g. SLIMF certification standards) Plan M&E properly - Selection of right partners (CIFOR: backstopping research; FSC-IC: develop approve standards; country partners and certification bodies: develop and test new standards) “Force” recognition - Implementation 2005-2009 - Production of several outputs Work with the right - Database for monitoring aspects of HCVF and biodiversity in FSC certified forests partners (research - FSC step-by-step guide - Good practice guide to meeting FSC certification requirements for biodiversity and HCV Forests in SLIMF partners for research; - Guide to markets for forest products and services for smallholders development partners for - FSC guide to certification for smallholders outcomes…) - National SLIMF standards for Mexico, Brazil and Cameroon - Outcome 2010: endorsement of the Use PIPA methods new SLIMFs standards for the 3 (http://boru.pbworks.com/w/pa countries by FSC ge/13774889/Background) THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. Impact Pathway: outcomes to impacts Inputs: CRP65 components15 research themes+ Gender, Capacity building,Sentinel landscapes Original research with partners Outputs Outcomes (e.g. publication, training, (e.g. forests and tree resources are better Impacts databases) (e.g. reduced deforestation managed) and degradation) Synthesis research and outreach ??? SRF 4 system-level outcomes
  18. 18. Outcomes to impacts: ouch! “The evidence of impacts of CGIAR Quantification of impact research on new or improved is difficult; all the more management practices and on natural resource management is for policy research insignificant.” (Science Council, 2006) Attribution is generally multiple and non documented Causality links between outcomes and impacts are weak or unclear Lack of proper methods to assess NRM and policy research impacts THINKING beyond the canopy
  19. 19. Outcomes to impacts: Some Hints Specific research  Outcomes as impacts linking outcomes to on a different scale impacts  Carefully disaggregate • Systematic reviews impact: • Long-term monitoring • Via adoption of specific experiments (Sentinel outputs by farmers Landscapes) • Via institutional New monitoring & innovation or policy- evaluation methods influence Impact evaluation as  Increase our capacity in integral part of project research about impact design of research THINKING beyond the canopy
  20. 20. How to foster adoption andimplementation of goodresearch based practices and policies?
  21. 21. Outreach and uptake efforts that have little or no effect Educational materials (distribution of recommendations for changed practice; including practical guidelines, audiovisual materials, and electronic publications) Didactic educational meetings (lectures like this one!!)Pile of 855 guidelines in general practices in the Cambridge andHuntingdon Health Authority : “The mass of paper we collectedrepresents a large amount of information, but it is in an unmanageableform that does little to aid decision making”
  22. 22. Interventions of variable effectiveness Audit and feedback (or any summary of performance) The use of local opinion leaders (practitioners identified by their colleagues as influential) Local consensus processes (inclusion of participating practitioners in discussions - problem focus & appropriateness of solutions)
  23. 23. Consistently effective outreach efforts. Educational outreach ‘visits’ ‘Social’ media (blogs, twitter, facebook, website). Repeated reminders (manual or computerized). Multifaceted interventions a combination that includes two or more of the following: ‘audit’ and feedback, reminders, local consensus processes, or marketing). Interactive educational meetings (participation of intended users in workshops that include discussion or practice). UNFF 4, Brazzaville 2004
  24. 24. Publications and impact?
  25. 25. PublicationsNumber of downloads /yr
  26. 26. Publications Download Title (2005 - 2011)Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options 46,793Hutan pasca pemanenan: melindungi satwa liar dalam kegiatan hutan 38,947produksi di KalimantanMoving ahead with REDD: issues, options and implications 29,252Dari desa ke desa: dinamika gender dan pengelolaan kekayaan alam 28,974Belajar dari Bungo: mengelola sumberdaya alam di era desentralisasi 22,992Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts 22,350Plantulas de 60 especies forestales de Bolivia: guia Ilustrada 22,035Panduan singkat cara pembuatan arang kayu: alternatif pemanfaatan 21,875limbah kayu oleh masyarakatAtlas industri mebel kayu di Jepara, Indonesia 20,014Partisipasi masyarakat dalam pembuatan kebijakan daerah di kabupaten 19,712Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi: ketidakpastian, tantangan, dan harapanMenuju kesejahteraan dalam masyarakat hutan: buku panduan untuk 19,160pemerintah daerahRiquezas da floresta: frutas, plantas medicinais e artesanato na América 18,623Latina
  27. 27. Impact on scientific publication
  28. 28. Web-based outreach 4,000,000 New Blog 3,500,000 3,374,799 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 Social Media 1,500,000 Page views 1,000,000 754,017 500,000 Launch of new CIFOR website 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 Quarter
  29. 29. Journalist workshops• 2011: 2 media workshops in Indonesia trained 37 journalists (Bali & Central Kalimantan)• 2012: 3 media workshops in Vietnam training 40 journalists + 12 editors – Workshops planned in Peru and Papua
  30. 30. Conclusions• Passive dissemination of information is generally ineffective• Best practice for dissemination and promoting effective diffusion is well known but seldom implemented by research institutions• Applied and strategic research institutions must reward success in uptake / adoption not just count publications• Further empirical studies on the relative effectiveness and efficiency of different dissemination and uptake strategies is required – build this into the research process
  31. 31. www.cifor.org/crp6 THINKING beyond the canopy
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