Gender
Methods:       An
OverviewCarol
J.
Pierce
Colfer         andRebakah
MinarchekCIFOR
Gender
Workshop  6‐8
November
2012
Methodological
issues
in
gender        and
natural
resources• All‐purpose
methods/resources• Methods
for
three
kinds
of
us...
Huge
variety
of
approaches• E.g.
Marxist
feminists,
Third
World
feminists,  feminist
political
ecologists,
ecofeminists,  ...
I.

Four
Common
All‐Purpose                  Methods1. review
of
existing
literature,2. surveys/questionnaires,3. intervie...
Useful
Quantitative
Overviews• OECD
developed
SIGI
(Social
Institutions
&  Gender
Index)
–
social
norms
&
gender  equality...
II.
For
users
with
few
resources
(time,          money
&
expertise)• PRA,
RRA,
RAAKS
[Rapid
Assessment
of    Agricultural
...
From
Behrmann
et
al.
2012•   Diagnosis
and
Design
(D&D);
Diagnostico
Rural
Rapido
(DRR);
Farmer
Participatory
Research;   ...
Advantages
of
PRA• Speedy• inexpensiveness• quick
look
at
community
realities• entrées,
ways
to
meet
a
few


community
mem...
Dangers
of
PRA• The
likelihood
of
misunderstanding
&
error  increase
with
a
quick
visit.• Diving
into
a
community
without
...
III.
For
users
with
social
science          expertise

easily
available• Use
of
existing         • Computer
Dependent  doc...
Advantages/Differentiation            from
PRA
(1/2)• Widely
accepted  theory
&
method• Focused
researcher  training
or
pa...
Advantages/Differentiation           from
PRA
(2/2)• Evidence
of
a)
replicability;
b)
evidence‐   based,
key
insights
into...
Constraints
to
Systematic/Academic   Use
of
Social
Science
Expertise• Trained
people
may
use  conceptual
frameworks
&  ter...
IV.
For
users
with
adequateresources,
seeking
understanding
and       long‐term
development• Participatory
approaches
stre...
Common
Elements
of        Participatory
Approaches•   Developing
a
vision•   Planning
and
monitoring•   Facilitation
of
co...
Advantages
to
Participatory           Approaches
(1)• Takes
systems
approach
–
attends
to
multiply  intersecting
elements
...
Advantages
to
Participatory           Approaches
(2)• Recognizes
flexibility  required
by
changing  circumstances,
greater...
Challenges
with
Participatory              Approaches• Long
(variable)
periods
of
time• Qualified/trained
persons
regularl...
Concluding
Reminders• Women
have
active
roles
in
many
natural  resource
systems.
We’ll
do
a
better
job
if
we  attend
to
th...
Comments
Welcome!        Sketches
by
Paradorn
Threemake
Gender methods: an overview
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Gender methods: an overview

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There are many different methods and approaches that can be used when incorporating gender considerations into research projects. This presentation gives an overview of the pros and cons of different useful methods, and explains which are suitable depending on the scale of the project and the resources (time, money, expertise) available. CIFOR scientist Carol Colfer prepared this presentation, together with Rebakah Minarchek, for an international meeting of some 30 gender specialists held on 6–8 November 2012 at CIFOR's headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.

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  • SAME DEAL---IF ALL SOC. SCI. DUMP
  • ISET = Institute of Social and Environmental Transition
  • Gender methods: an overview

    1. 1. Gender
Methods: An
OverviewCarol
J.
Pierce
Colfer andRebakah
MinarchekCIFOR
Gender
Workshop 6‐8
November
2012
    2. 2. Methodological
issues
in
gender and
natural
resources• All‐purpose
methods/resources• Methods
for
three
kinds
of
users:

those needing
something – ‘quick
and
[perhaps]
dirty’ – Systematic/academic/extractive – Participatory,
usually
long
term• Conclusions
    3. 3. Huge
variety
of
approaches• E.g.
Marxist
feminists,
Third
World
feminists, feminist
political
ecologists,
ecofeminists, feminist
environmentalists,
socialist
feminists, feminist
poststructuralists,
institutional
analysis and
development
specialists• WID,
GAD,
WAD
[Marxist,
Women
and Development],
DAWN
[Development
Alternatives with
Women
for
a
New
Era],
WED
[Women, environment
and
Sustainable
Development]
    4. 4. I.

Four
Common
All‐Purpose Methods1. review
of
existing
literature,2. surveys/questionnaires,3. interviews,
and4. case
studies5. [Indices
(SIGI,
VCI,
WEAI)] Disaggregate
by
Sex
    5. 5. Useful
Quantitative
Overviews• OECD
developed
SIGI
(Social
Institutions
& Gender
Index)
–
social
norms
&
gender equality• India’s
(India)
ISET
produced
VCI
(Vulnerability Capacity
Index)
–
on
climate
change• IFPRI,
OPHI
&
USAID
developed
WEAI (Women’s
Empowerment
in
Agriculture
Index)
    6. 6. II.
For
users
with
few
resources
(time, money
&
expertise)• PRA,
RRA,
RAAKS
[Rapid
Assessment
of Agricultural
Knowledge
Systems],
etc.• Many
collections
available
(e.g.
Geilfus
2008)• E.g.
historical
transects,
pebble
distribution games,
seasonal
calendars,
venn



diagrams,
wealth
ranking,
sondeos,



CATPAC,
focus
groups,
future



scenarios,
++
    7. 7. From
Behrmann
et
al.
2012• Diagnosis
and
Design
(D&D);
Diagnostico
Rural
Rapido
(DRR);
Farmer
Participatory
Research; Farming
Systems
Research;
Groupe
de
Recherche
et
d’Appui
pour
l’Auto‐Promotion Paysanne
(GRAPP);
Methode
Acceleree
de
Recherche
Participative
(MARP);
Micro‐Planning Workshops;
Participatory
Analysis
and
Learning
Methods
(PALM);
Participatory
Action Research
(PAR);
Participatory
Monitoring
and
Evaluation
(PME);
Participatory
Operational Research
Projects
(PORP);
Participatory
Poverty
Assessment
(PPA);
Participatory
Poverty Monitoring
(PPM);
Participatory
Policy
Research
(PPR);
Participatory
Research
Methodology (PRM);
Participatory
Rural
Appraisal
(PRA);
Participatory
Rural
Appraisal
and
Planning
(PRAP); Participatory
Social
Assessment
(PSA);
Participatory
Technology
Development
(PTD); Participatory
Urban
Appraisal
(PUA);
Planning
for
Real
(PfR);
Process
Documentation;
Rapid Appraisal;
Rapid
Assessment
of
Agricultural
Knowledge
Systems
(RAAKS);
Rapid
Assessment Procedures
(RAP);
Rapid
Assessment
Techniques
(RAT);
Rapid
Catchment
Analysis
(RCA); Rapid
Ethnographic
Assessment
(REA);
Rapid
Food
Security
Analysis
(RFSA);
Rapid
Multi‐ perspective
Appraisal
(RMA);
Rapid
Organisational
Assessment
(ROA);
Rapid
Rural
Appraisal (RRA);
Samuhik
Brahman
(Joint
Trek);
Self‐esteem,
Associative
Strength,
Resourcefulness, Action
Planning,
and
Responsibility
(SARAR);
Soft
Systems
Methodology
(SSM);
Theatre
for Development;
Training
for
Transformation
(TFT);
Village
Appraisal
(VA);
Visualisation
in Participatory
Programmes
(VIPP);
and
Zielorientierte
Projekt
Planung
(ZOPP).
    8. 8. Advantages
of
PRA• Speedy• inexpensiveness• quick
look
at
community
realities• entrées,
ways
to
meet
a
few


community
members,
establish
early
levels
of rapport,

explain
why
you
are
there
    9. 9. Dangers
of
PRA• The
likelihood
of
misunderstanding
&
error increase
with
a
quick
visit.• Diving
into
a
community
without
knowledge of
how
people
group
(e.g.
political
factions) can
raise
barriers
difficult
to
overcome
later.• Beginning
work
in
a
new
community
without first
establishing
trust,
rapport
can
lead
to
lies &
misrepresentation.
    10. 10. III.
For
users
with
social
science expertise

easily
available• Use
of
existing • Computer
Dependent documents methods• Statistical
& • Ethnography quantitative
analysis • Interpretive
methods
    11. 11. Advantages/Differentiation from
PRA
(1/2)• Widely
accepted theory
&
method• Focused
researcher training
or
past experience
on
topic
& method.• Sufficient
time
frame for
research
    12. 12. Advantages/Differentiation from
PRA
(2/2)• Evidence
of
a)
replicability;
b)
evidence‐ based,
key
insights
into
historical
trends; &/or
c)
interactions
among
parts
of
key systems• Results
likely
to
be
publishable


in
accepted
scientific
journals
    13. 13. Constraints
to
Systematic/Academic Use
of
Social
Science
Expertise• Trained
people
may
use conceptual
frameworks
& terminologies
alien
to
others• Refereed
journals

long
lag times
–
perhaps
too
long• Social
scientists’
in‐depth training
may
have
reduced exposure
to
biophysical sciences
    14. 14. IV.
For
users
with
adequateresources,
seeking
understanding
and long‐term
development• Participatory
approaches
strengthen
local capabilities
(analysis,
networking,
monitoring, conflict
mgm’t,
leadership,
facilitation
+)• [Especially
women’s
viewpoints;



voice]• Uses
PRA
&
extractive
methods
as complements,
as
needed
    15. 15. Common
Elements
of Participatory
Approaches• Developing
a
vision• Planning
and
monitoring• Facilitation
of
collective
action• Approaching
equity
explicitly• Participatory
modeling
    16. 16. Advantages
to
Participatory Approaches
(1)• Takes
systems
approach
–
attends
to
multiply intersecting
elements
of
women’s
&
men’s lives
&
environment• Builds
on
local
knowledge
(men’s,
women’s), ‘married’
with
external
knowledge• Recognizes
human
&
environmental propensity
for
change,
with
mechanisms
for dealing
with
change
    17. 17. Advantages
to
Participatory Approaches
(2)• Recognizes
flexibility required
by
changing circumstances,
greater likelihood
of
responding appropriately DOUBLY
ADVANTAGEOUS WITH
ATTENTION
TO
GENDER
    18. 18. Challenges
with
Participatory Approaches• Long
(variable)
periods
of
time• Qualified/trained
persons
regularly
involved
in village
life
(remote,
uncomfortable,
dangerous?)• Impossible
to
ensure
original
plans
succeed, resulting
need
for
humility,
willingness
to
change —
loss
of
perceived
control.• Superior
(not
unequivocal)
rights
of
communities to
determine
collaborative
actions.
    19. 19. Concluding
Reminders• Women
have
active
roles
in
many
natural resource
systems.
We’ll
do
a
better
job
if
we attend
to
those
doing
the
work.CONSIDER

in
methods
selection:• Scale
(macro,
meso,
micro),
gendered
power differentials,
and
resources
available
(time, expertise,
funds)
    20. 20. Comments
Welcome! Sketches
by
Paradorn
Threemake
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