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From local forests to the global forest: Resilience and involution of local forest systems in the globalization era
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From local forests to the global forest: Resilience and involution of local forest systems in the globalization era

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Geneviève Michon …

Geneviève Michon
For the POPULAR Group

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education

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  • 1. From local forests to the global forest Resilience and involution of local forest systems in the globalization era Geneviève Michon For the POPULAR Group
  • 2. Local forests as socio-ecological systems
    • Forest systems related to “rural” population (forest “nomads”, shifting cultivators, settled farmers, horticulturists, shepherds, cattle farmers)
      • Based on local values and knowledge
      • Regulated through local rights systems (o n collective lands or individual farm-related plots)
      • An integral part of the economy and livelihood of domestic units
      • The support of local social relationship systems, territories and identities
      • Carried-out at a small-scale level, with adaptive management
    • Have shaped large tracks of forest landscapes all over the planet
  • 3. West Java, Indonesia Local forests: in the humid tropics India Cameroon Ethiopia Indonesian Borneo Laos
  • 4. Local forests: in semi-arid areas and Mediterranean regions Morocco Spain West Timor Ethiopia Burkina
  • 5. Local forests: in temperate countries Central France
  • 6. Local forests from Wilderness to Humanity
    • A specific balance between “ Nature ” and “ Culture ”
    • Material processes and practices (targeting trees, ecosystem, landscape) + Immaterial dimensions (knowledge, rights and social relationship)
    • “ Domestication” ?
      • Reflects local forests' specificity and qualities
      • Emphasizes the link between these forests and the domestic units who manage them (families, lineages, tribes)
  • 7. Revisiting domestication, the material processes: forging new trees Grafting selected varieties Planting wildings and varieties Increasing production through working on the tree form Western Chestnut Argan (Argana spinosa) tree in Morocco the visible processes the invisible processes Tree for oil production: different shapes for different nut quality Tree for goats: private Tree for goats: communal Hedges Controlling root sprouts
  • 8. Revisiting domestication, the material processes : Engineering the ecosystem Manipulating global forest development Ffilling natural or induced gaps Manipulating regeneration
  • 9. Revisiting domestication, the material processes : creating landscapes developing infrastructures introducing rights Creating diversity
  • 10. Revisiting domestication, the immaterial processes: belonging to the domesticity Economy: support of livelihood Patrimony: transgenerational intentions Symbolism: linking to religion and beliefs Territory Political dimension Identity
  • 11. Local forests in common policy frameworks
    • Forest policies : do not really acknowledge local forests
      • Production forests? (not intensive timber production areas)
      • Conservation forests? (not biodiversity sanctuaries: too much humanity)
      • Social forest? (reluctance for full local rights, authority and legitimacy recognition)
    • Agricultural policies : care for single tree productions (chestnut, argan oil)
    • Conservation policies : reluctant to modernization
    • Territory development policies : the most favorable for local forests (in Europe)
  • 12. « Sustainable Development »: a more favorable framework? New opportunities, new initiatives
    • Participation, devolution: Social forestry, Community forestry…
    • Local product certification (G.I.)
  • 13. « Sustainable Development »: a more favorable framework? New opportunities, new initiatives
    • Participation, devolution: Social, Community forestry…
    • Local product certification (G.I.)
    • Biodiversity or ethnic products
  • 14. « Sustainable Development »: a more favorable framework? New opportunities, new initiatives
    • Participation, devolution: Social, Community forestry…
    • Local product certification (G.I.)
    • Biodiversity or ethnic products
    • Environmental services
    • Also: New management referentials: Capital vs. Patrimony
  • 15. Forest = capital, assets?
    • Forest: capital-rent (relation to market economy and economic development ): marketing forest products, conservation concessions, ……. REDD
  • 16.
    • Other types of assets: livelihood assets
    • Not only monetary, but still in terms of capital
    Human Capital The Poor Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Social Capital Natural Capital Physical Capital Financial Capital
  • 17. Forest = Heritage, Patrimony
    •  Heritage, « Patrimony »: social development, intergenerational dimension, responsibility, non-market values, consolidation of identity, territory, transmission
    Family, lineage, tribe State Region World Forest Sector Patrimonial Economy
  • 18. Tropical Rainforest: piling up conflicting patrimonial claims Local, Customary patrimonies (family, lineage, tribes…) National Domain Historical situation: Local + State  negation, or destruction of local patrimonies for the construction of the State Forest Domain
  • 19. Tropical Rainforest: piling up conflicting patrimonial claims World Heritage (biodiversity, carbon) BUT: reconstruction of unified « local patrimonies » as part of « the World rainforest heritage » Globalization of sustainable development norms, policies and projects New situation: Local + International, less State Local, self-organized claims Claims organized by external agents Priority: protecting the heritage
  • 20. Patrimonial claims and forest valorization Scaling-up or down?
    • A local, multipurpose domestic forest
    • Patrimony of local families, lineages and tribes
    • But also State Domain
    The argan forest in Morocco
  • 21. Patrimonial claims and forest valorization Scaling-up or down?
    • Development or argan oil as an international commodity through EXTERNAL actors (development agencies, NGOs, private entrepreneurs)
    • At different levels
      • “ Indigenous Community”
      • Nation
      • International
    The argan oil: « Making a living out of patrimonial valorization »
  • 22. Patrimonial claims and forest valorization Scaling-up or down?
    • Benefits captured at external levels
    • More dissociation (economic, social, environmental), sustainability questioned
    • Transmission questioned
    •  resilience???
    The argan oil: « Making a living out of patrimonial valorization »
  • 23.
    • An abandoned forest
    • Rehabilitation
      • Carried out of local initiative of local actors
      • Through collective action
      • With a strong political dimension (identity)
    • Redefining the knowledge base
      • Revisiting « tradition »: modernization
    • Redefining rights
      • Privatizing land rights but creating new solidarities
    Patrimonial claims and forest product valorisation Scaling-up or down? The chestnut forest in Corsica: « Making a living out of patrimonial valorization »
  • 24.
    • Improving environmental, social and economic benefits
    • Towards more sustainability
    • Good resilience through time
    Patrimonial claims and forest product valorisation Scaling-up or down? The chestnut forest in Corsica: « Making a living out of patrimonial valorization »
  • 25. Deconstructing patrimonies
    • Rubber agroforests in Sumatra (international commodity market): moving from patrimony to capital development
    Through market forces
  • 26. Deconstructing patrimonies
    • Woodlots in southern France (land market): selling the patrimony (emerging trends ????)
    Through market forces A forest linked to the “house” Land market for tourism Resilience proved for centuries Resilience presently questioned
  • 27. Deconstructing patrimonies Through agricultural policies
    • 1990s: Rattan agroforests in Indonesian Borneo (policy support to large estate development for private investors)
    But resilience???
  • 28. Deconstructing patrimonies Through agricultural policies
    • Ash tree in the Pyrenees (policy support to intensive agriculture)
    Future still uncertain
  • 29.
    • More benefits for local forest people?
    • Stronger or more secure rights on productive resources?
    • Better respect of human rights? Stronger decision power on future?
    • Better biodiversity protection? More environmental services?
    • More resilience?
    Local forests in the sustainable development era
      •  Look at actors and processes at various time and space scales
  • 30. Thank you for your attention

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