Formal rules, informal timber extraction, Central Africa and China

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Paolo Cerutti, senior scientist on CIFOR's Forests and Governance research program, highlights the relationship between formal institutions regulating timber extraction and the informal institutions and practices on the ground in Central Africa. Cerutti calls for the need to move away from generalized assumptions of Chinese involvement in the region to acknowledge nuances and individual trends on the ground.

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Formal rules, informal timber extraction, Central Africa and China

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopyFormal rules, informal timber extraction, Central Africaand ChinaGreening China-Africa Cooperation, Beijing, 8th June 2013Paolo Omar CERUTTI
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopyThe map is not the territory
  3. 3. THINKING beyond the canopyThe W.E.I.R.D. effecthttp://www.foreignpolicy.comChina&…&imports&.mber&and&exports&ecological&impact&(Mayer&et&al.&2005)&&China’s&.mber&prac.ces&abroad&are&a&threat&to&sustainability&and&human&livelihoods&(Sun&et&al.&2004;&Smouts&2003)&&There&is&a&culture&of&secrecy&around&Chinese&companies&and&their&prospec.ng&ac.vi.es&(Smouts&2003;&Glastra&1999)&The&real&resource&sink&is&the&US,&Europe,&and&Japan&(White&et&al.&2006)&&China&gives&fewer&lectures&and&more&prac.cal&help&(in&Africa)&(Jeffrey&Sachs&in&NYT,&8/18/06)&&China’s&involvement&in&Africa&lacks&perspec.ve&in&broadsheet&press&(Mawdsley&2008)&
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopyCentral Africa: the map•  Forest management units•  Council forests•  Community forests•  Authorisations•  Customary permitsArea/Volume harvestedInvestmentsPeople employed...
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopyCentral Africa: the territoryOutcomes)Effec,ve)formal)ins,tu,ons)Ineffec,ve)formal)ins,tu,ons)Convergent) Complementary& Subs.tu.ve&Divergent) Accommoda.ng& Compe.ng&Helmke and Levitsky 2004
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopyOur findings: the mapTimber exports to Asia (90% China) over total exports
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopyOur findings: the territoryCerutti et al. 2011
  8. 8. THINKING beyond the canopyTimber: the maphttp://www.wri.org
  9. 9. THINKING beyond the canopyTimber: the territoryWWF-CED-RELUFA 2012
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopyTimber production: the map“Informal” timber productionCerutti and Tacconi 2008
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy[Percent of national sawnwood production, m3]Source: State of the Forest 2010, chapter 4 (www.observatoire-comifac.net)Timber production: the territory
  12. 12. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopyThe State: the map
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopyThe State: the territory
  20. 20. THINKING beyond the canopyRecent trends: map or territory?
  21. 21. THINKING beyond the canopyWhat about China in all this?•  There exist “things” that make China differentfrom other countries– But “who” is China?•  “Old” players have shaped the territory, “new”players challenge “model” behavioural norms(often wrongly) taken for granted•  Before changing the “rules of the game”, newplayers need to learn current rules– “Fill the gaps” = easiest initial strategy?
  22. 22. THINKING beyond the canopyTHINKING beyond the canopyThe Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)is one of the 15 centres supported by the ConsultativeGroup on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)Grazie www.cifor.org/pro-formalp.cerutti@cgiar.org

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