Forests, ecosystems services and poverty alleviation - World Bank

5,076 views
4,898 views

Published on

This presentation was delivered at the third Latin American Conference of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations in San Jose, Costa Rica.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,076
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,429
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
169
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Forests, ecosystems services and poverty alleviation - World Bank

  1. 1. Forests, Ecosystems Services and Poverty Alleviation Charting a new research agenda Peter Dewees Forests Adviser World Bank
  2. 2. What are Ecosystems Services? “….the benefits which people obtain from ecosystems” Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2
  3. 3. Ecosystems Services A metaphor 3
  4. 4. Ecosystems Services Stocks and Flows 4
  5. 5. Ecosystems Services Ecosystem Services as commodities 5
  6. 6. Ecosystems Services …which increase human well being 6
  7. 7. Ecosystems Services What about the environment’s intrinsic value? 7
  8. 8. Categorizing Ecosystem Services Supporting services Provisioning services Regulating services Cultural services 8
  9. 9. Conventional Wisdoms and stylized facts Time Environmental degradation Humanwell-being 9
  10. 10. What is happening to ecosystem services? Trend Ecosystem Services Provisioning Regulating Cultural Declining supply Fuelwood, genetic resources, fresh water, global fisheries, wild foods Local climate regulation, erosion control, water quality regulation, pest control, pollination Spiritual and religious values, aesthetic value Increasing supply Crops, livestock, agriculture Global climate regulation Tourism Mixed trends in supply Timber, cotton Water flow regulation, disease control Recreation 10
  11. 11. What is happening to human well-being? 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Human Development Index Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Caribbean World East Asia and the Pacific South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 11
  12. 12. Why is there a disconnect? Some hypotheses We are not measuring the right things 12
  13. 13. Why is there a disconnect? Some hypotheses The only services that really matters are provisioning ones 13
  14. 14. Why is there a disconnect? Some hypotheses There is a time lag between when ecosystems decline and when we feel the impact 14
  15. 15. Why is there a disconnect? Some hypotheses Technology and innovation have helped people compensate for the loss of services 15
  16. 16. What is happening in rural landscapes? • Global forest cover is both degrading and declining; Source: FAO (2005). State of the World’s Forests. 16
  17. 17. Forest loss and degradation Drivers of Deforestation1 4 32 5 17 6
  18. 18. What is happening in rural landscapes? • Global forest cover is both degrading and declining; • In rural landscapes, tree cover as well as the number of trees on farms is increasing. Source: FAO (2005). State of the World’s Forests. 18
  19. 19. Transitions are underway 19
  20. 20. Trees on farms are increasing. Why? 20
  21. 21. Establishing boundaries… 21
  22. 22. Restoring productivity… 22
  23. 23. Increasing household consumption… 23
  24. 24. Increasing household income... 24
  25. 25. Building resilience through diversification… 25
  26. 26. Technology and innovation? What we are seeing is adaptation to the loss of ecosystem services on a grand scale with profound impacts on poverty 26
  27. 27. Supporting adaptation How can policy most effectively support adaptation at scale? 27
  28. 28. Policies to create incentives for better landscape management Humbo Assisted Natural Regeneration Project, Ethiopia 28
  29. 29. Policies to create incentives for better landscape management Loess Plateau, China 29
  30. 30. Policies which secure local rights to land, trees and forests are important 1975 2003 Landscape recovery in Galma, Niger, over 28 year period 30
  31. 31. Policies which secure local rights to land, trees and forests are important Parkland farming systems in West Africa 31
  32. 32. Zinder, southern Niger in the 1980s Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration 32
  33. 33. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration 33
  34. 34. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration 34
  35. 35. Impact of a single Faidherbia albida on crop growth 35
  36. 36. Trees on farms can build resilience Faidherbia Trial Results in Zambia Maize Yields (tons per ha) 2008 2009 2010 With Faidherbia 4.1 5.1 5.6 Without Faidherbia 1.3 2.6 2.6 Number of trials 15 40 40 36
  37. 37. Investing in ecosystem services Conservation Agriculture in Zambia: 100 Faidherbia trees per ha 37
  38. 38. Trees on farms can build soil carbon Carbon sequestration rates under different land management practices (kg ha-1 yr-1) in Africa 38
  39. 39. Impacts would be huge if these systems could be scaled up Adoption of systems like Faidherbia and Gliricidia on an additional 5 million ha: Value of nitrogen fertilizer produced by farmers $500 million per year Amount of additional maize produced 5 to 10 million tons per year Value of additional maize produced $1 to $1.5 billion Amount of additional carbon captured 30 to 50 million tons per year (valued between $450 million and $1.25 billion) 39
  40. 40. Old research paradigms focused on the forest… These boundaries have strongly influenced the forest research agenda in the past, but… 40
  41. 41. … rather than on complex land- uses at scale … new areas of emphasis will become increasingly important 41
  42. 42. We need new ways of looking at land-use…. … which better recognizes the complexities of land use systems and the ecosystems services which support them Natural Forest 4.1 billion ha Crop Land 1.5 billion ha Pasture & Rangelands 3.4 billion ha Wetlands 1.3 billion ha Deserts 1.9 billion ha Planted Forest 0.3 billion ha 42
  43. 43. Data for informing policy 43
  44. 44. Key data quality challenges •Data should be representative •Data can be aggregated •Definitions are credible •Data is up to date •Data is policy relevant •Data is addressing the right questions 44
  45. 45. Poverty alleviation, forests and trees •Role of household environmental income with respect to: • Productivity and consumption • Risk and vulnerability • Equality 45
  46. 46. Poverty alleviation, forests and trees •Policies and public finance • How to support farmer-based adaptation? • Identifying other points of entry: social safety nets 46
  47. 47. Thank you www.worldbank.org/forests 47

×