This presentation was given on 8 September 2012 at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, South Korea, during a session co-hosted by CIFOR titled ‘Managing wild species and systems for food security’.
Food sovereignty for food security: how protecting traditional knowledge and agro-biodiversity can be part of the solution
Food Sovereignty for Food SecurityHow protecting traditional knowledge and agro‐biodiversity can be part of the solution Workshop “Managing wild species and systems for food security” Co‐organized by Bioversity International and CIFOR IUCN World Conservation Congress Jeju (Korea), 6‐15 September 2012 Cristina Eghenter Deputy Director for Social Development WWF‐Indonesia
• The physical limits of agriculture (land, productivity, intensification, etc)?• Low investment and innovation• The supply vs demand argument: Food scarcity?• Whose demand for food?• The distributional and equity dimensions of food security
Ecosystem and biodiversity conservation & food security: The Risks•More land clearing•Loss of biodiversity can also mean loss of food and cultural/spiritualsystem•Loss of traditional knowledge and practices associated with smallagroforestry and agricultural regimes•Increased disempowerment and creation of poverty
Food security is not only a matter of quantity of food, but also ofthe diversity and quality of food, and related cultivars, equally atthe basis of a sustainable and meaningful food&livelihood systemIt is the local enrichment and active experiments and practices oflocal & Indigenous people (men and women) that have oftenshaped the variety of cultivars and diversity of food plants of ourplanetFood sovereignity as a way to recognize rights and diversity, andestablish fair protection claims over the genetic resources thatmake up agro‐biodiversity
• High biodiversity is a salient feature of traditional farming systems• ‘Local’ feature of traditional farming systems: agrobiodiversity nurtured in very specific environments and micro‐climates, influenced by cultural traditions and strong preferences• The results of surveys conducted by local people in the Highlands of Krayan, Kecamatan Krayan Selatan, Kabupaten Nunukan (2005): over (20) local varieties of durian “datu” fruit or varieties with enough phenotypical and sensorial distinct characteristics to warrant a different name in the local language• Over (40) varieties of rice are planted in any planting season between the Bahau and Pujungan sub‐districts in Malinau. In Krayan Selatan, (22) varieties of paddy rice were cultivated in the six settlements of the sub‐district of Krayan Selatan in 2007 and (4) hill rice varieties.• A study of two communities in Sarawak (Christiansen 2002) found that local people have knowledge of over 1,144 species, representing more than 172 botanical families. Around 20% of the species known and used are cultivated, semi‐managed or domesticated. Around 50% of these species have multiple uses. The most important of these uses is food.
• The ‘diversity’ and ‘locality’ of cultivars and genetic resources is a way to build resilience, adaptability and reduce vulnerability by maintaining diverse and adaptive plants that can cope with climate and environmental crises.• The varieties also need to be recognized, and origin and names maintained, as part of a fair food sovereignty program.
• Is conservation and sovereignty of agro‐biodiversity and local cultivars the solution to food security? Not by itself, but it is an important dimension to consider and integrate in policies to ensure long‐term security and sustainability in conservation landscapes.• Food security will also require technological and financial investment in sustainable farming practices, more innovation, tenure security, and overall good governance of the land and other natural resources.• Some important policies will also need to be followed up and implemented: Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) protocol (and Community Protocols to protect customary practices and knowledge); thw institution of the office for food security of the Ministry of Agriculture which has an explict mandate to identify and develop local food plants/crops integrated and in line with traditional knowledge as a basis for diversification of staple food.
WWF Indonesia plans to engage in more :field action and advocacy insupport of agro‐biodiversity and recognition of related traditionalknowledge•Focus on small farms are as a significant share of agricultural production•Promote environment‐friendly methods and investment•Documentation and protection of bio‐cultural knowledge systems relatedto plants and crops (community potocols; registry and banks of traditionalseeds)•Management of competing claims over land use to avoid land grabbing forbiofuels and cattle feed•Promote good governance of natural capital by involving the relevantstakeholders and right‐holders, and based on meaningful collaboration andfair partnerships•In landscapes and regions where traditional management practices,customary land use, local wisdom and rich biodiversity are linked in strongand adaptive systems, these need to be maintained so that they can serve asa basis for sustainable and resilient green economies.