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Fifteen years of forest community management in Niger: from a technician's dream to social reality
 

Fifteen years of forest community management in Niger: from a technician's dream to social reality

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Rives Fanny, peltier Regis, Montagne Pierre

Rives Fanny, peltier Regis, Montagne Pierre

Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: Where do we go from here?

24 - 26 March 2010
Montpellier, France

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    Fifteen years of forest community management in Niger: from a technician's dream to social reality Fifteen years of forest community management in Niger: from a technician's dream to social reality Presentation Transcript

    • Fifteen years of forest community management in Niger: from a technician’s dream to social reality (Rives Fanny, Peltier Régis, Montagne Pierre) Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: Where do we go from here? Conference in Montpellier, March, 2010
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion The history of Community forest management in Niger 1980s’ The origins: fear of desertification and of firewood shortage + Ineffectiveness of forest policies 1981 Forest cooperatives IDA project 1992 Firewood Rural Markets (Edict number 92-037) Energy II Project – PEII (1989-1998)
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion What is a “Rural Market of firewood” (RM)? A Local Management Structure (SLG) A place of wood sale in rural area A delimited area that supply the Rural Market A tax on firewood trade
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Location of case studies in Tillaberi region Rural Market of Tientiergou Rural Market of Ñinpelima
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Technical rules in the RMs of Ñinpelima & Tientiergou Rural Market Type of RM Forest Harvesting Division into Trees to be delimitation quota plots harvested Ñinpelima Oriented YES YES NO Dead trees Tientiergou Controlled YES YES 6 plots Live trees* *Live trees of 4 species: - Combretum micranthum and Guiera senegalensis which diameter is > than 6 cm - Combretum glutinosum and Combretum nigricans which diameter is > than 8 cm
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Methods Technical rules • Semi-directive interviews • Observations Woodcutters practices • Semi-directive Interviews • Observations • Inventories Sustainability?
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Similar practices in Ñinpelima and Tientiergou Technical rules Practices • Forest limits • Harvesting beyond forest limits in (both RM) Ñinpelima (and maybe in Tientiergou) • Forest division into plots • Harvesting in the whole of the forest (Tientiergou RM only) in Ñinpelima and Tientiergou • Type of wood to harvest • Harvesting of live trees of several species (Dead trees in Ñinpelima RM) in Ñinpelima and Tientiergou • Quota of wood to harvest • Annual harvesting > quota (both RM) in Ñinpelima
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Practices: harvesting beyond forest limits in Ñinpelima Road from Niamey to Ouagadougou Limits of Ñinpelima RM Woodcutters trip
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Why forest limits are not respected in Ñinpelima? Road from Niamey to Ouagadougou Limits of Ñinpelima RM Limits of Ñinpelima “terroir”
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion And yet, rules on forest delimitation have evolved Faïra forest Ñinpelima/ Tientiergou forest Forest cooperative Rural Market 1988 1993 IDA Project Energy II Project
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion In Tientiergou, turnover on plots is not respected… … And yet, rules on forest delimitation have evolved 15 plots 6 plots 1 plot 15-years turnover 6-years turnover 9-years turnover Faïra Forest Tientiergou forest (Ichaou, 2009) Forest cooperatives Rural Market Rural Market 1981 1992 2009 IDA Project Energy II Project Gesforcom Project
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Sustainability: ecological changes in Tientiergou Comparison between inventories made in 2007 and inventories made in 1990 1990 2007 920 stems/ ha 705 stems/ ha with diameter > than 4 cm with diameter > than 3 cm
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Sustainability: ecological changes in Ñinpelima Comparison between inventories in harvested plots and inventories in non harvested plots Diameter class distribution of stems according to plot treatment (Combretum) 90 80 70 % of Stems number 60 50 40 Without harvesting 30 With harvesting 20 10 0 [0-2[ [2-4[ [4-6[ [6-8[ >8 Diameter class of stems (cm)
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Sustainability: ecological structure is changing but regeneration is ensured in Ñinpelima and Tientiergou • Interviews with woodcutters confirmed that forest structure is modified (decrease of stems diameter, decrease of species with bad capacity of regeneration, end of dead trees) • However, forest dynamic is provided • resilience of “tiger bush” (Peltier &al, 1994; Tongway &al, 2001) • Vegetative propagation of Soudano-sahelian sp (Bellefontaine, 1997)
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Sustainability: socio-economical changes • Changes in stakeholders • Changes in individual incomes Improvement of living conditions • Changes in collective incomes BUT… • Woodcutters are worried about the decrease of the quality of wood • Wood traders can buy wood in other areas Are these practices economically sustainable at RM scale?
    • Context Case studies Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions On the gap between Practices and Technical rules • A feedback of practices on technical rules… • … However, most technical rules did not apply • What are the necessary technical rules? On the sustainability • Local practices did not threaten regeneration of sahelian ecosystems • Local practices threatened production of stems with large diameter • Scale of sustainability?