Decentralization and REDD in BrazilDecentralization and REDD in Brazil


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Presentation by Fabiano Toni Center for Sustainable Development
Decentralization and REDD in Brazil.
Oaxaca Workshop Forest Governance, Decentralisation and REDD+ in Latin America and the Caribbean,
31 August – 03 September 2010, Oaxaca, Mexico.

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Decentralization and REDD in BrazilDecentralization and REDD in Brazil

  1. 1. Decentralization and REDD in Brazil Fabiano Toni Center for Sustainable Development WORKSHOP ON FOREST GOVERNANCE, DECENTRALIZATION AND REDD+ IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Oaxaca, Mexico. Aug. 31-Sept. 3, 2010
  2. 2. Questions <ul><li>Do decentralization processes expand opportunities for REDD+? </li></ul><ul><li>Which subnational levels might be involved in REDD+ ? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of involvement? </li></ul><ul><li>W ha t are the cross-scale coordination issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of REDD+ on livelihoods of forest dwellers? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Decentralization <ul><li>Transfer of powers and resources from central to democratically elected subnational governments </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves effectiveness of policies and efficiency of service delivery; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases equity, local participation, and local democracy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens local governments. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Decentralization <ul><li>Risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowing of the political agenda; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E lite capture and exclusion of the powerless;  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local governments lack incentives, capacity, and resources . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risks may offset advantages </li></ul>
  5. 5. REDD vs Decentralization <ul><li>REDD+ includes elements that call for both recentralisation and decentralisation; </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization has advantages and disadvantages for REDD+: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving forces of deforestation operate at different scales (effectiveness and efficiency); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon accounting and leakage monitoring transaction costs (effectiveness and efficiency); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed vs . locally agreed rules (effectiveness, efficiency, equity). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination or competition. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Municipal Governments and Forests in LA Source: L a rson et al. , 2007 LAW Local Offices Permits/concessions Land owners BOL 1996 Forest in 110 mun. In Municipal Forests Mun. Forest Reserves BRA 2006 Some Envir. Not Yet Small areas GUA 1996 Forest in 1/3 Mun. No Ejidos HON 2008 Few Forest In ejidos Ejidos NIC 2003 Some envir. in Aut. Regions Small areas
  7. 7. Municipal Governments and Forests in LA Source: L a rson et al. , 2007 Revenues L ogging taxes Services Supervision BOL 12 -21% forest fees Yes, small scale loggers Yes in all mun. w ith forest offices BRA No In a few mun. agroforestry No GUA 50% Yes By agreement HON 1% Yes, by contract Only by contract NIC 25% - 35% in aut. regions Exceptionally In aut. R eg. o r by contract
  8. 8. <ul><li>Powers over resource allocation remain at the central level; </li></ul><ul><li>Varying capacities of local governments; </li></ul><ul><li>Involvements in forest activities limited – lack or powers, resources, and incentives. </li></ul>Municipal Governments and Forests in LA Source: L a rson et al. , 2007
  9. 9. Protected Areas in Amazonia Total in 2009 (HA)
  10. 10. Protected Areas Created between 2003-2009 in Amazonia (HA)
  11. 11. State protected areas created in Amazonia 2003-2009 (% of total, by state)
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Equity is as important as effectiveness and efficiency – imposed and unfair rules = broken rules; </li></ul><ul><li>Subnational governments increase effectiveness; </li></ul><ul><li>Subnational governments need incentives; </li></ul><ul><li>C oordination or competition determined by political/institutional factors; </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple governmental layers may protect interests of multiple actors. </li></ul>