Dead-lock or transformational change – a comparison of REDD+ politics in the media

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How pervasive are REDD+ debates in national media, who is driving the debate, and what is being advocated by each actor/group? CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study used media-based discourse analysis across six countries to identify policy coalitions that could or could not move the policy design for REDD+ towards transformational change.

Tim Cronin gave this presentation on 18 June 2012 at a panel discussion organised by CIFOR and partners at the ISEE 2012 Conference, which convened under the topic "Ecological Economics and Rio+20: Challenges and Contributions for a Green Economy". The panel was titled ‘National strategies for reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation – how much transformational change is possible in current political and economic realities? Part I – An overview’. For more information, visit http://www.cifor.org/events/rio20/

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Dead-lock or transformational change – a comparison of REDD+ politics in the media

  1. 1. Deadlock or transformational change: a comparison of REDD+ politics in the media Monica Di Gregorio, Maria Brockhaus, Tim Cronin, Efrian Muharrom, Sofi Mardiah, Levania SantosoTHINKING beyond the canopy 18 June 2012, ISEE, Rio de Janeiro
  2. 2. Six countries Nepal VietnamPeru PNG Brazil Indonesia THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Research questions: How pervasive are REDD+ debates in national media and how are these debates framed? Who are the main actors driving these debates and what is their vision of REDD+? What are the dominant and minority coalitions and do they advocate business as usual or transformational change? THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Theory & methodsAnalysis of policy coalitions Transformational coalitions (vs BAU): embrace discourse on the drivers of deforestation and propose solutions to root causes Dominant coalition (vs minority): broad, inclusive and featuring political and economic elitesMethods Sources: • 3 national newspapers per country • December 2005 (COP11) – December 2010 • Keyword search to identify REDD+ related articles Content analysis • Standardised codebook to code media frames (quantitative) • Manual coding on ‘stances’ of policy actors (qualitative) THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Stances - OTHER 10. GROWTHIndonesia 9. CAPACITY BUILDING 8. GOVERNANCE 7. RIGHTS 6. REDD+ Agree 5. CO‐BENEFITS Disagree 4. CENTRALISED 3. MARKET 2. DEVELOPED WORLD 1. SOLUTION 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70S01. REDD (or at least forests) should be part of the global solution to climate change [SOLUTION]S02. REDD should be financed by developed countries [DEVELOPED WORLD]S03. REDD should be financed by a carbon offsetting market mechanism [MARKET]S04. REDD programs should be formulated and managed at the national level [CENTRALISED]S05. REDD should provide co‐benefits  apart from combating climate change [CO‐BENEFITS]S06. REDD should incorporate avoided degradation, conservation and reforestation, not just avoided deforestation [REDD+]S07. REDD risks to reduce access to forest resources and harm traditional forest users [RIGHTS]S08. REDD will require major governance and institutional reform [GOVERNANCE]S09. REDD will require major technical capacity building [CAPACITY BUILDING]S10. REDD should not compromise Indonesias economic growth, including that generated through agricultural expansion [GROWTH] THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Stances - Indonesia Farmers federation or group National /Local International/ Foreign Business association National private business Political Party ORANGE lighter orange S05 [CO-BENEFITS] S10 [GROWTH] Participatory  RED lighter red S09 [CAPACITY BUILDING] Venue* NGO GREEN lighter greenMultinational corporation Domestic ENGO or ENGO coalition International research centre or think tank Business YELLOW lighter yellow/gold S03 [MARKET] National level state and bureaucratic actors International ENGO National research centre or think tank Government BLUE lighter blue S06 [REDD+] Sub-national or local state actor Research PURPLE lighter purple Intergovernmental organization or body S04 [CENTRALISED] Other BROWN lighter brown S02 [DEVELOPED WORLD] Actors: Circles S01 [SOLUTION] S07 [RIGHTS] Stances: Squares (WHITE) S08 [GOVERNANCE] Line width: Denotes strength of tie (# of statements made) Agree statements: BLUE solid line Domestic NGO or NGO coalition Disagree statements: RED dashed line Non-Indonesian state actor Agree and disagree statements: BLACK dotted line  International NGO Indigenous organization THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Indonesia Domestic ENGO or ENGO coalition International research centre or think tank3 [MARKET] National level state and bureaucratic actors International ENGO National research centre or think tank Sub-national or local state actor Intergovernmental organization or body S04 [CENTRALISED] S02 [DEVELOPED WORLD] S01 [SOLUTION] S07 [RIGHTS] S08 [GOVERNANCE] Domestic NGO or NGO coalition Non-Indonesian state actor International NGO THINKING beyond Indigenous organization the canopy
  8. 8. Comparative results: Identical stances REDD (or at least forests) should be part of the global solution to climate change [SOLUTION] REDD should be financed by developed countries [DEVELOPED WORLD] REDD will require major governance and institutional reform [GOVERNANCE] REDD should be financed by a carbon offsetting market mechanism (inc. VCAs) [MARKET] THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Comparative results: Identical stances REDD (or at least forests) should be part of the global solution to climate change [SOLUTION] REDD should be financed by developed countries [DEVELOPED WORLD] REDD will require major governance and institutional reform [GOVERNANCE] REDD should be financed by a carbon offsetting market mechanism (inc. VCAs) [MARKET] THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Same issue, different framing Indonesia: REDD risks to dispossess/reduce access to forest resources and harm traditional forest users [RIGHTS] Brazil: REDD should include indigenous and forest dwelling communities in discussions and decision making [INCLUSION] PNG: REDD funding (inc. VCAs) should benefit landowners for protecting forests [LANDOWNERS] Peru: If REDD is to go ahead, it is necessary to address land rights, corruption and bureaucracy Nepal: Money earned through REDD should benefit local, poor and indigenous communities [COMMUNITIES] THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Unique stances and debates Indonesia: REDD programs should be formulated and managed at the national level [CENTRALISED] Brazil: REDD will enable us to value the environmental services of forests [PES] PNG: REDD funding (inc. VCAs) will encourage corruption and exploitation [EXPLOITATION] Vietnam: Environmental services from forest should be financed by domestic beneficiaries [USER PAYS] Peru: Natural forests should not be valued alongside plantations; REDD threatens biodiversity [NO PLANTATIONS] THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Conclusion Dominant coalitions = → Business as usual → Broad agreement Minority coalitions = →Transformational → Contested issues (e.g. rights) Moving coalitions from minority to dominant will require stronger engagement by national state actors on difficult and contentious issues THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. AcknowledgementsThis work is part of the policy component of CIFOR’s global comparative study on REDD (GCS). The methods and guidelines used in this research component were designed by Maria Brockhaus, Monica Di Gregorio and Sheila Wertz‐Kanounnikoff. Parts of the methodology are adapted from the research protocol for media and network analysis designed by COMPON (‘Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks’).Case leaders:  Thuy Thu Pham (Nepal), Thuy Thu Pham & Moira Moeliono  (Vietnam), Daju Resosudarmo & Moira Moeliono (Indonesia), Andrea Babon (PNG), Peter Cronkleton (Bolivia), Mary Menton (Peru), Sven Wunder & Peter May (Brazil), Samuel Assembe & Jolien Schure  (Cameroon), Samuel Assembe (DRC), Salla Rantala (Tanzania), Sheila Wertz‐Kanounnikoff (Mozambique), Suwadu Sakho‐Jimbira (Burkina Faso), Arild Angelsen (Norway). Special thanks to our national partners from REDES, CEDLA, Libelula and DAR, REPOA, UEM, CODELT, ICEL, ForestAction, CIEM, CERDA, Son La FD, UPNG, NRI‐PNG, and UMB. Thanks to contributors to case studies, analysis and review : Levania Santoso, Tim Cronin, Giorgio Indrarto, Prayekti Murharjanti, Josi Khatarina, Irvan Pulungan, Feby Ivalerina, Justitia Rahman, Muhar Nala Prana, Caleb Gallemore (Indonesia), Nguyen Thi Hien, Nguyen Huu Tho, Vu Thi Hien, Bui Thi Minh Nguyet, Nguyen Tuan Viet and Huynh Thu Ba(Vietnam), Dil Badhur, Rahul Karki, Bryan Bushley (Nepal), Daniel McIntyre, Gae Gowae, Nidatha Martin, Nalau Bingeding, Ronald Sofe, Abel Simon (PNG), Walter Arteaga, Bernado Peredo, Jesinka Pastor (Bolivia), Maria Fernanda Gebara, Brent Millikan, Bruno Calixto, Shaozeng Zhang (Brazil), Hugo Piu, Javier Perla, Daniela Freundt, Eduardo Burga Barrantes, Talía Postigo Takahashi (Peru), Guy Patrice Dkamela, Felicien Kengoum (Cameroon), Felicien Kabamba, Augustin Mpoyi, Angelique Mbelu (DRC), Rehema Tukai, George Jambiya, Riziki Shemdoe, Demetrius Kweka, Therese Dokken (Tanzania), Almeida Sitoe, Alda Salomão (Mozambique), Mathurin Zida, Michael Balinga (Burkina Faso), Laila Borge (Norway). Special thanks to Efrian Muharrom, Sofi Mardiah, Christine Wairata, Ria Widjaja‐Adhi, Cecilia Luttrell, Markku Kanninen, Elena Petkova, Arild Angelsen, Jan Boerner, Anne Larson, Martin Herold, and Pablo Pacheco. We gratefully acknowledge the support received from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation,  the Australian Agency for International Development, the European Commission,  and the UK Department for International Development. THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. Thank you!www.cifor.cgiar.org THINKING beyond the canopy

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