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Conservation in an Amazonian tri national frontier livelihoods and forest clearing in community-managed forests


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Amy E. Duchelle, A. Almeyda, N. Hoyos, M. Marsik, E. Broadbent, Karen A. Kainer …

Amy E. Duchelle, A. Almeyda, N. Hoyos, M. Marsik, E. Broadbent, Karen A. Kainer

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education

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  • Community choice:Brazil nut producing communitiesRoad accessible90% cloud cover for 20-year period
  • Findings parallels region-wide study (Southworth et al, in prep) with exception of less deforestation in community managed forests in 2000-2005 in Acre and MDD Fragmentation and close proximity to roads helped explain deforestation at the pixel level (2000-2005
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    • 1. Conservation in an Amazonian tri-national frontier: livelihoods and forest clearing in community-managed forests
      Amy E. Duchelle1,2, A. Almeyda3, N. Hoyos4, M. Marsik5,
      E. Broadbent3, Karen A. Kainer6
      1Universidade Federal do Acre, Brazil / University of Florida
      2Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
      3Stanford University
      4Smithsonian Tropical Institute, Panama
      5University of Washington
      6University of Florida
      Taking Stock of Smallholder and Community Forest Management
      Montpellier, March 24-26, 2010
    • 2. CommunityForest Management as
      a ConservationStrategy
      • Communities own or manage nearly ¼ of world’s forests in developing countries (White & Martin 2002)
      • 3. Evidence for maintenance of forest cover in community-managed forests when compared to strict protected areas (Nepstad et al. 2006, Ellis & Porter-Bolland2008)
      • 4. Forest clearing by smallholders and communities depends on social, political and economic context (Schmink1994, Wood 2002, Geist& Lambin 2002) along with livelihood strategies and opportunities (Kaimowitz and Angelsen 1998, Angelsen 2006, Chomitz 2007)
      • 5. Study question: What is the relationship between livelihood strategies and forest clearing inextractive communities in Western Amazonia?
    • Tri-nationalAmazonianfrontier (Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; Pando, Bolivia)
      Acre, Brazil
      Madre de Dios, Peru
      Pando, Bolivia
      >1/3 forest area managed by communities
    • 6. Brazilnut–richforests (Bertholletia excelsa): Central non-timberforestproduct in region
      • Long-lived “forest giants” reaching
      50m height, 3m dbh
      • Density estimated at 2-3 trees
      per hectare
      • Reproductive in mature forest, little
      success in plantations
      • Fruits fall during the wet season and opened by collectors
      • 7. Central livelihood activity for thousands of families
    • DiverseCommunityLivelihoods
    • 8. What is the relationship between livelihood strategies and forest clearing in Brazil nut-producing communities?
      Satellite data – pixel (30x30 m)
      Survey data - household
      • Evaluate drivers of reported forest
      clearing (2002-2007) by households in
      same 11 communities
      • CIFOR Poverty and Environment
      Network (hh characteristics, hh life cycles
      income sources)
      • Multivariate OLS Regression
      • 9. Describe trajectories of land cover
      change in 11 communities
      (1986-2005, 5-yr time steps)
      • Remote sensing protocol described
      in Marsik et al. 2010
      Geoghegan et al., 2001; Walker et al. 2000
    • 10. Communities Sampled
      ACRE, BR
      PANDO, BO
      • 11 Brazil nut-producing communities
      (road access, >90% cloud-free images)
      • 125 households
    • Main finding #1: Minimal deforestation in community managed forests, but a deforestation trend
    • 11. Main finding #2: Income sources explained forest clearing at the household scale
      Regression Highlights
      • Brazil nut income
      negatively predicted
      forest clearing in Madre
      de Dios and Pando
      • Crop income + predicted
      clearing in Madre de
      Dios andPando
      • Livestock income
      + predicted clearing
      in Pando alone (livestock
      assets in Acre
      • Other income (= Govt
      aid) + predicted
      clearing in Acre
      • HH size only non-income
      + predictor of clearing in
      MDD and Pando
    • 12. Conclusions
      • Extremely high forest cover and forest income dependence in Brazil nut-producing communities in MAP region
      • 13. Positive relationship between government aid and forest clearing in Acre is worrisome. REDD projects for smallholders in Brazilian Amazon being designed with the “bolsafamilia” model in mind
      • 14. Adoption of cattle in Pando by communities along roads and close to Brazilian border following Acre trend
      • 15. Negative relationship betweenBrazil nut income andforest clearing in Pando and Madre de Dios reinforces need to bolster Brazil nut sector to promote regional forest-based livelihoods and conservation
    • Acknowledgements
      • Regional partners
      Embrapa-Acre, Herencia-Pando, ACCA-Madre de Dios, MAP Initiative
      • Field assistance
      Gladys Guanacoma (Universidad Amazonica del Pando)
      Marcianed’Araujo and Jucelida Souza (EscoladaFloresta, Acre)
      Peter Groenendjik (University of Utrecht)
      • Funding sources
      • 16. Academic support
      Jack Putz, Marianne Schmink, Jane Southworth, Brian Child, Grenville Barnes
      • Brazil nut producers
      in the MAP region
      U.S. National Science Foundation
      Contact: Amy Duchelle