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Conservation in an Amazonian tri national frontier livelihoods and forest clearing in community-managed forests


Amy E. Duchelle, A. Almeyda, N. Hoyos, M. Marsik, E. Broadbent, Karen A. Kainer …

Amy E. Duchelle, A. Almeyda, N. Hoyos, M. Marsik, E. Broadbent, Karen A. Kainer

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in Education
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  • Community choice:Brazil nut producing communitiesRoad accessible90% cloud cover for 20-year period
  • Findings parallels region-wide study (Southworth et al, in prep) with exception of less deforestation in community managed forests in 2000-2005 in Acre and MDD Fragmentation and close proximity to roads helped explain deforestation at the pixel level (2000-2005


  • 1. Conservation in an Amazonian tri-national frontier: livelihoods and forest clearing in community-managed forests
    Amy E. Duchelle1,2, A. Almeyda3, N. Hoyos4, M. Marsik5,
    E. Broadbent3, Karen A. Kainer6
    1Universidade Federal do Acre, Brazil / University of Florida
    2Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
    3Stanford University
    4Smithsonian Tropical Institute, Panama
    5University of Washington
    6University of Florida
    Taking Stock of Smallholder and Community Forest Management
    Montpellier, March 24-26, 2010
  • 2. CommunityForest Management as
    a ConservationStrategy
    • Communities own or manage nearly ¼ of world’s forests in developing countries (White & Martin 2002)
    • 3. Evidence for maintenance of forest cover in community-managed forests when compared to strict protected areas (Nepstad et al. 2006, Ellis & Porter-Bolland2008)
    • 4. Forest clearing by smallholders and communities depends on social, political and economic context (Schmink1994, Wood 2002, Geist& Lambin 2002) along with livelihood strategies and opportunities (Kaimowitz and Angelsen 1998, Angelsen 2006, Chomitz 2007)
    • 5. Study question: What is the relationship between livelihood strategies and forest clearing inextractive communities in Western Amazonia?
  • Tri-nationalAmazonianfrontier (Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; Pando, Bolivia)
    Acre, Brazil
    Madre de Dios, Peru
    Pando, Bolivia
    >1/3 forest area managed by communities
  • 6. Brazilnut–richforests (Bertholletia excelsa): Central non-timberforestproduct in region
    • Long-lived “forest giants” reaching
    50m height, 3m dbh
    • Density estimated at 2-3 trees
    per hectare
    • Reproductive in mature forest, little
    success in plantations
    • Fruits fall during the wet season and opened by collectors
    • 7. Central livelihood activity for thousands of families
  • DiverseCommunityLivelihoods
  • 8. What is the relationship between livelihood strategies and forest clearing in Brazil nut-producing communities?
    Satellite data – pixel (30x30 m)
    Survey data - household
    • Evaluate drivers of reported forest
    clearing (2002-2007) by households in
    same 11 communities
    • CIFOR Poverty and Environment
    Network (hh characteristics, hh life cycles
    income sources)
    • Multivariate OLS Regression
    • 9. Describe trajectories of land cover
    change in 11 communities
    (1986-2005, 5-yr time steps)
    • Remote sensing protocol described
    in Marsik et al. 2010
    Geoghegan et al., 2001; Walker et al. 2000
  • 10. Communities Sampled
    ACRE, BR
    • 11 Brazil nut-producing communities
    (road access, >90% cloud-free images)
    • 125 households
  • Main finding #1: Minimal deforestation in community managed forests, but a deforestation trend
  • 11. Main finding #2: Income sources explained forest clearing at the household scale
    Regression Highlights
    • Brazil nut income
    negatively predicted
    forest clearing in Madre
    de Dios and Pando
    • Crop income + predicted
    clearing in Madre de
    Dios andPando
    • Livestock income
    + predicted clearing
    in Pando alone (livestock
    assets in Acre
    • Other income (= Govt
    aid) + predicted
    clearing in Acre
    • HH size only non-income
    + predictor of clearing in
    MDD and Pando
  • 12. Conclusions
    • Extremely high forest cover and forest income dependence in Brazil nut-producing communities in MAP region
    • 13. Positive relationship between government aid and forest clearing in Acre is worrisome. REDD projects for smallholders in Brazilian Amazon being designed with the “bolsafamilia” model in mind
    • 14. Adoption of cattle in Pando by communities along roads and close to Brazilian border following Acre trend
    • 15. Negative relationship betweenBrazil nut income andforest clearing in Pando and Madre de Dios reinforces need to bolster Brazil nut sector to promote regional forest-based livelihoods and conservation
  • Acknowledgements
    • Regional partners
    Embrapa-Acre, Herencia-Pando, ACCA-Madre de Dios, MAP Initiative
    • Field assistance
    Gladys Guanacoma (Universidad Amazonica del Pando)
    Marcianed’Araujo and Jucelida Souza (EscoladaFloresta, Acre)
    Peter Groenendjik (University of Utrecht)
    • Funding sources
    • 16. Academic support
    Jack Putz, Marianne Schmink, Jane Southworth, Brian Child, Grenville Barnes
    • Brazil nut producers
    in the MAP region
    U.S. National Science Foundation
    Contact: Amy Duchelle