Community based forest management plans in the brazilian amazon current barriers and necessary reforms

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Isabel Garcia Drigo, USP/Agroparitech …

Isabel Garcia Drigo, USP/Agroparitech
Marie Gabrielle Piketty, CIRAD UMR MOISA
Wagner Pena, Emater, Para (Brazil)
Plinio Sist, CIRAD UR 105

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

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  • 1. Community-based forest management plans in the Brazilian Amazon: current barriers and necessary reforms Isabel Garcia Drigo, USP/Agroparitech Marie Gabrielle Piketty, CIRAD UMR MOISA Wagner Pena, Emater, Para (Brazil) Plinio Sist, CIRAD UR 105 Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry, Montpellier 24-26 April 2010
  • 2. The Brazilian Amazon  9 States  5 217 420 km²  64% of forest  61% of Brazilian State  20 Million habitants
  • 3. Potential Area of CFM 1000 THOUSANDS 901 900 800 Potential areas for CFM > 46 Mha 700 Indigenous areas = 110Mha Potential areas for concession 43 Mha 600 500 465 400 300 263 253 200 161 118 126 101 95 79 81 80 100 6 4 0 FLONAS RDS RESEX APA QUIL COLONS TOTAL Source: Amaral and Verissimo 2007 Area MFC Source SFB 2007
  • 4. Community Forest Management Projects in the Brazilian Amazon 1566 initiatives of CFM and smallholders management plans Total area of 851,000 ha Only 5459 families
  • 5. First Conclusions on CFM in the Brazilian Amazon  Large potential area more than 45 million ha  Still very few CFM plans  High diversity of situations (traditional populations, small farmers, common or individual forest land)  Large expectations  Large support from several entities : governmental bodies (Promanejo program), civil society (ONGs), foreign support….  Increase of CFM in the Amazon (17 plans in 1990 1566 initiatives in 2006*) * source: Serviço Florestal Brasileiro 2007
  • 6. The many problems and the focus  Many regulatory frameworks impose slow and costly permit granting processes.  Internal challenges, limited technical and business skills, quality and scale production, and potential internal conflicts  Long term economic viability poorly documented whereas it is expected that forest management of legal forest reserves (80 % of each land holding) generate a significant additional income ► Detailed analysis of economic results of 4 CFM (2 in Acre State – 2 in Para State)
  • 7. The four case-studies APRUMA CANOR PORTO DIAS VIROLA-JATOBA States Acre Para Acre Para Land tenure Individual Individual Concession Concession Participants 16 6 8 24/183 Area (ha) 640 364 2.400 23.000 Annual harvested 64 74 40 500-1000 area (ha) Harvesting CFM CFM CFM Partnership method mechanized mechanized mechanized logging company Benefit sharing Individual Individual Among the 8 All families members
  • 8. Timber Production Performance Production (m3/family/year) (m3/year) Case Study Planned Real Pedro Peixoto 11 6 * Not all sold Canor 174 174 * Porto Dias 400 170 Virola-Jatoba 8.000 4.000 Main Limiting factors: 1. Lack of skill in forest inventories 2. Bad road conditions 3. Lack of time dedication from farmers to logging
  • 9. Production Costs: the case of Canor High transport costs (58%) Cost of Management Plan almost equal to all logging costs Agregated cost value similar with others case studies in the Amazon (50-100 US$/m3)
  • 10. Economic results of CBFM FAMILY NET INCOME N Comments (US$/family/year) years Expected Real Pedro Peixoto 869 800 10 Only 3 families Canor 1100-2000 < 0? 8 Only 500 m3 sold Porto Dias 2500 2125 30 Large public subsidies Virola-Jatoba 1300 550 25 Main Limiting Factors 1. No market for all harvested species 2. Competition with illegal logging and authorized deforestation 3. In the best case scenario income is only 70% of brazilian minimum wage
  • 11. Conclusions -Discussion  The community-based forest management faces huge challenges to secure long term economic viability yet.  The current timber prices barely manage to secure long term economic viability  Bad road infrastructures have a significant impact on costs  Administrative costs are important
  • 12. Conclusions -Discussion  Even if timber becomes scarce, if control is increasing, the illegal timber market still exists. The demand for « legal timber » is not that high  Timber demand for specific valorized species often requires to be able to produce high quality round or sawn wood  Not all the forest in the settlement are really that rich….(economically speaking)  CBFM economic returns from timber are not currently sufficient to sustain alone a family
  • 13. Discussion for future policies and research  Invest in new forms of local governance of forest resources  Realize a full assessment of timber potential of legal reserves in the Amazon  Improve secondary road infrastructures  Invest in R&D to support the implementation of sustainable cattle ranching and agricultural activities in the limited area allowed to be deforested  Secure public markets (minimum prices ?) for timber from CBFM  Decrease administrative costs