Climate Smart Landscape-Based Integrated Watershed Management: Experiences from India
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Climate Smart Landscape-Based Integrated Watershed Management: Experiences from India

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This presentation focuses on watershed management which also takes climate change and the landscape approach into consideration. It shows measurements, drainage treatment, adaptive sustainable......

This presentation focuses on watershed management which also takes climate change and the landscape approach into consideration. It shows measurements, drainage treatment, adaptive sustainable agriculture and much more.

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  • 1. CLIMATE SMART LANDSCAPE‐BASED  INTEGRATED  WATERSHED  DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM  DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM INDIA 
  • 2. Scale of Operations People impacted > 1 million Watershed Villages W t h d Vill 1,265 1 265 Project Villages 2,776 States S Area covered People trained p 6 > 7,23,605 ha > 320,000 , Support provided to Projects in Somaliland,  Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi . Kenya Tanzania and Malawi
  • 3. THEMATICWOTR’s Competencies AREAS & COMPETENCIES • Watershed/ Ecosystems Development and Natural Resource Management • Climate Change Adaptation • Integrated Water Resources Management • Sustainable Adaptive Agriculture and Food Security • Rural Livelihoods • Health, Sanitation, Hygiene, Nutrition , ( q y) p • Gender, Inclusion (equity) and Women’s Empowerment • Renewable Energy • Capacity Building and Training • Institutional and Systems Development • Knowledge Management-Action Research , Development Communication • Policy Dialogue
  • 4. T The Co ontex xt Chan nge Clima ate Market Forces Depleted  Natural Resources Fractured Vulnerable Communities
  • 5. The Effects of Water Scarcity Women and Children are not spared Long distances to fetch fire wood Malnourished children Tanker fed Villages a e ed ages Cattle sheds during droughts
  • 6. Per rspec ctive and Ap a pproa ach The WOTR Engine for Adaptive Sustainable Development
  • 7. Watershed/ Ecosystems Development - A ClimateClimate Smart Strategy for Sustainable Agricultural Development
  • 8. MEASURES -AREA TREATMENTS Stone Bunds
  • 9. DRAINAGE TREATMENTS/LAND USE CHANGES
  • 10. Integrating Bio‐Diversity g g y
  • 11. FOOD & WATER Conserv C vation, Management, Use Eff ficiency y Adaptive Sustainable Agriculture Water  Water Availability Cropping Pattern Pilot Crop  Demos/ Farmer  Field Schools Soil Health and   Environmentally  safe Practices Water Budgeting Water  Conservation  Technologies g Integrated Pest  Management Integrated  Water‐Nutrient  Management
  • 12. On Field Interventions – Learning By Doing  Water Efficiency Enhancing Systems Farmer Field Schools Agro Advisories School Exposure Trips for Learning & Validation
  • 13. Locale‐ Specific Meteorological Information Automated Weather Stations installed in 51 villages Automated Weather Stations installed in 51 villages Weather information displayed on boards in villages Awareness creation amongst villagers Agro‐Meteorology software development is in  g gy p process Training for villagers
  • 14. Weather based, Crop and Locale Specific Agro-Advisory Provisioning: A Systems Diagram
  • 15. Climate Smart Community Adaptation: Scaling Up with Feet  on the Ground  WOTR has developed/ adapted the following Tools and  Frameworks for Context Assessment and Decision Making: Frameworks for Context Assessment and Decision Making: • CoDriVE‐ PD: A Vulnerability Assessment Tool • CoDriVE – PA and Livelihoods: A Project and Livelihoods  Adjustment Tool • Modified People’s Biodiversity Register (M‐PBR) • Children’s Biodiversity Register (C PBR) Children s Biodiversity Register (C‐PBR) • Participatory 3‐D Modeling (P3DM) • Community Disaster Risk Management (C‐DRM) • IT‐enabled GIS and RS – supported Decision Support Systems IT enabled, GIS and RS  supported Decision Support Systems
  • 16. IMPACTS
  • 17. Strategies & Approaches Darewadi  Darewadi ‐ 1996 Darewadi ‐ 1999 Darewadi ‐ 2009 Rejuvenates & Diversifies Natural Resources j Revitalizes Local Economies Strengthens Relationships
  • 18. Impact Details Income From Agriculture (1996 – Income From Agriculture (1996 – 2009) 60 % of Change=427% over 13 Years : for one year =33% 50 ROI : 600% over 13 Years : for one year =46% Rs. In Million n 40 30 20 10 - Cash Crops Cereal Oil seed Pulses Vegetable Milk Fodder Total 1996 - 1.27 0.32 2.41 2.61 - 4.01 10.61 2001 15.10 1.93 0.02 0.75 5.25 1.06 8.54 32.65 2009 32.53 4.13 0.04 0.92 2.63 0.82 14.88 55.93
  • 19. The Impacts of Watershed Development Barren land decreased by 74% despite a 32% decline in rainfall. A study of 15 villages revealed th f ll i t d f ill l d the following: • • • • • • • • Productive wells increased by 29% Area under irrigation increased by 233% Cropped area increased by 25% Agriculture employment went from 4 to 10 months /year locally (150% increase) Distress migration declined by 84% Milk production increased by 143% Production of Food crops by 65% Vegetable production by 64%
  • 20. Water Shortages : Fading Memories
  • 21. Increased Resilience to Climate Change
  • 22. Some Policy Impacts   • Capacity Building as a distinct and preparatory phase included in  all Government and large‐scale WSD Programmes in India all Go ernment and large scale WSD Programmes in India • The Watershed Development Fund (NWDF) set up by Govt. of  India based on this approach developed under the IGWDP. I di b d hi hd l d d h IGWDP • Participatory Net Planning (PNP) adopted in Govt. Programs   • Secured permission to treat Govt. Forest land  • Government of Maharashtra adopted the handholding approach Government of Maharashtra adopted the handholding approach  of WOTR involving NGOs and facilitating agencies‐ “Mother NGO/  Resource NGO”  • The Rajiv Gandhi Watershed mission (MP) adopted the PNP &  Village Envisioning methodology g g gy
  • 23. HOW IT IS DONE: PUTTING DONE PEOPLE AT THE CENTRE
  • 24. An Inclusive Community Involvement • The Village chooses to implement the project (self‐selection) • Agree to non‐negotiable disciplines • Village institutions involved: • General Village Body (Gram Sabha of all adult members) General Village Body (Gram Sabha of all adult members) • Village Council and the Village Development Committee   ( p (representative of all communities including landless poor)  g p ) • Women’s Self‐Help Groups & their Apex Body  • Forest Protection Committee & others 
  • 25. What is done: Community Engagement Community Engagement        Village Envisioning  Capacity Building Participatory Net Planning (PNP) Adopting a “Systems Approach” Implementation  Implementation Maintenance of Accounts, Records  and Reporting Participatory Impact Monitoring & Peer Group  Assessment
  • 26. What is done: Important Aspects for continued  Important Aspects for continued  Community Engagement & Sustainability Key Issues consciously addressed:  Inclusiveness and equity (community takes responsibility) q y( y p y)  Gender Sensitivity  Transparency Plan for Sustainability:  Maintenance Fund  Water Budgeting  g g  Quality Education & with an eco‐systems focus  Linkages with government and other service providers Linkages with government and other service providers  Addressing related issues (eg renewable energy; rural tourism) 27
  • 27. Managing It All IT‐ enabled, GIS and Remote Sensing – supported Decision Support ,  supported Decision Support Documentation and Monitoring  Systems 
  • 28. Str rategies & Appr roaches Project Area – LISS-IV satellite images Transition area Akole Cluster Rainshadow area Pathar I & II
  • 29. Socio Technical Approach Using Technology for Context Assessment & Decision making Net Planning using Mobile GPS
  • 30. Socio-Economic Data Net Plan Data
  • 31. Crop Mapping within single gat  using mobile GPS p pp g g g g
  • 32. Pre‐Treatment Scenario(Dec 1992) Kumbarwadi Watershed 988 ha/ 500 mm rainfall for all images Dec 2000 Post‐Treatment Scenario (Dec 2011) Class Dec 1992 (ha) Dec 2011 (ha) % Change Wasteland Water spread  area 362.45 255 ‐42 2.48 3.64 +32 Cropland 290.92 328.15 +11 81.85 81 85 114.47 114 47 +29 988.33 988.32 Canopy Cover Canopy Cover Total
  • 33. Programs, Funders & Partners • • • Climate Change Adaptation Program Indo German Watershed Development Program p g Sujala Watershed Development Program SHMM Trust Fund Government of Maharashtra Government of Andhra Pradesh Gove Government of Madhya Pradesh e t o ad ya ades
  • 34. Knowledge Partners World Agroforestry Centre India Meteorological Department Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, MPKV Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, CRIDA g , Bharati Vidyapeth Institute of Environment Education and Research
  • 35. Concluding Considerations • Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water resources, Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water resources,  communities, livelihoods and economic activities – all are  rooted in and interact within and across watersheds • Building adaptive capacities needs to take into consideration  the inter‐relationships between these components, identify  p p , y vulnerabilities and undertake measures that ameliorate risks  to them • In rural economies, developing contexts, livelihoods and well  being depend upon nature and the quality of environmental  g p p q y services • Watershed based sustainable landscape management,  p g , improved water use efficiency, climate smart agriculture,  better value chain management and increased market access  will help build adaptive capacities, mitigate risks and reduce  vulnerabilities of the poor 
  • 36. Thank You! Catching Rain Everywhere…