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Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks
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Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks

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This presentation by Marius van den Berg from the Institute for Environment and Sustainability explains briefly what climate-smart agriculture is what effects and interrelations farm management …

This presentation by Marius van den Berg from the Institute for Environment and Sustainability explains briefly what climate-smart agriculture is what effects and interrelations farm management practices associated with CSA have, how CSA was adopted and which policies enabled it and what can be taken home from that.

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  • 1. Climate Smart Agriculture: Opportunities and Stumbling blocks Maurits van den Berg Institute for Environment and Sustainability Joint Research Centre 1
  • 2. Overview • Context: What are we talking about • Farm management practices associated with CSA • Effects (advantages and disadvantages) • Interrelations • Adoption of CSA • Enabling policies • Take-home messages 25 November 2013 2
  • 3. What are we talking about? The three pillars of climate smart agriculture: • Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes • Adapting and building resilience to climate change • Reducing and/or removing greenhouse gases emissions, where possible (FAO, 2013) 25 November 2013 3
  • 4. Global population Food consumption per capita billion kcal per capita per day Animal products Other crops Oil crops Cereals Non-OECD OECD (Source: PBL, 2010) 25 November 2013 4
  • 5. Agricultural land use in 2000 (Source: van den Berg et al., 2011) 25 November 2013 5
  • 6. Agricultural land use in 2050,land use change Project business as usual scenario (business as usual scenario) (Source: van den Berg et al., 2011) 25 November 2013 6
  • 7. Adapting and building resilience to climate change Trend, change in temperature (°C, 1901 to 2012) 25 November 2013 7
  • 8. Change in average precipitation (1986-2005 to 2081-2100) in two distinct emission scenarios 8
  • 9. Agriculture (Source: EDGAR dabase, courtesy G. Maenhout-Janssens, JRC; LULUCF: IMAGE Calculations) 9
  • 10. Climate smart agriculture To sustain the three pillars: • Increase in crop yields and animal feed use efficiency • Minimise conversion of (semi-)natural land to arable land • Improve/sustain soil health and biodiversity to adapt and build resilience to climate change • Efficient use of inputs (water, fertilizers, agrichemicals) 25 November 2013 10
  • 11. Examples of measures • Adapted/more productive/resilient crop varieties or animal breeds • Adapted crop calendar • Crop rotation / Intercropping (especially with N-fixing crops) • Minimum soil disturbance (e.g. no till or minimum tillage) • Crop residues left on the land • Semi-natural vegetation intertwined with cropland • Better irrigation practices • Smarter use of chemicals (only when needed, at the right place and the right time; biological pest control when possible) • Rehabilitation of degraded land • Improved animal husbandry • Better integration of animal manure in crop production • Minimise harvest and post harvest losses 25 November 2013 11
  • 12. Example 1: Conservation agriculture 25 November 2013 12
  • 13. Example 1: Conservation agriculture • Crop rotation (e.g. soybean - wheat) • Minimum soil disturbance (direct drilling, no-till) • Crop residues left on the land after harvest Advantages: • High yield potential thanks to improved soil-health and water conservation • Less need of fertilisers • Higher C-storage in the soil • less CO2 from field machinery use • Less labour requirements Stumbling blocks: • Crop residues left on the land cannot be used for other purposes • No-till can pose difficulty to crop emergence (esp. during transition phase) • New pest/diseases may appear (esp. during transition phase) • Weed infestations • Lack of local knowledge farmers, suppliers, extension officers 25 November 2013 13
  • 14. Example 2: Intertwine semi-natural vegetation with cropland vs
  • 15. Example 2: Intertwine semi-natural vegetation with cropland • A coherent network of semi-natural features (hedgerows, buffer strips, flower strips, woodlots, semi-natural grasslands etc.) in agricultural areas Advantages: • provides corridors for species migration, • Pollination • Bioogical pest control • Erosion control • Opportunities for supplementary income (e.g honey, agritourism) Stumbling blocks & drawbacks: • Loss of crop land area • Implementation costs • Use of heavy field machinery restricted • New pest/diseases may appear (esp. during transition phase) 25 November 2013 15
  • 16. Example 3: Better irrigation practices 25 November 2013 16
  • 17. Source: van den Berg et al., 2011
  • 18. Example 3: Better irrigation practices • Reduce losses from reservoirs and channels • Efficient, properly maintained equipment (e.g. drip, central pivot, short furrow) • Improved irrigation scheduling Advantages: • Higher yields can be obtained with same amount of water • Less negative off-site effects • More efficient nutrient use • Energy savings (from pumps) Stumbling blocks: • Initial investments at farm and catchment level • Only works if water is valued • Lack of knowledge / awareness 25 November 2013 18
  • 19. Deficit irrigation: substantial amounts of irrigation water can be saved with minor yield penalty Irrigation water requirements: Full irrigation Deficit irrigation Source: JRC (CAPRESE project) 19
  • 20. Example 3: Better irrigation practices • Reduce losses from reservoirs and channels • Efficient, properly maintained equipment (e.g. drip, central pivot, short furrow) • Improved irrigation scheduling Advantages: • Higher yields can be obtained with same amount of water • Less negative off-site effects • More efficient nutrient use • Energy savings (from pumps) Stumbling blocks: • Initial investments at farm and catchment level • Only works if water is valued • Lack of knowledge / awareness 25 November 2013 20
  • 21. Common features • Fairly simple measures (more sophisticated measures also exist) • Approaches can be applied to many environments, but local adaptation is required • Measures tend to enhance each other (synergy) • Drawbacks tend to be strong during initial phase • Action required at farm and higher levels • Costs tend to be concentrated on farmers, benefits for society as a whole • Policies are required to overcome drawbacks 25 November 2013 21
  • 22. Enabling conditions for adoption • Prices of produce and inputs are fair and fairly predictable • Markets are reliable • Land tenure is secure • Credit to invest in long-term land productivity is available and accessible • Training opportunities • Trust that adoption will improve stakeholders’ livelihoods • Low yield risk; or technologies/insurance mechanisms are available to cope with risks • Incentives exist to safeguard public goods and services 25 November 2013 22
  • 23. Climate risk management – Need for innovative financing mechanisms DOI: 10.2788/713 • Agricultural insurance as means to reduce risk; • Traditional insurance schemes are not fit for climaterelated risk; • Weather index-based insurance schemes provide interesting alternative; • Many pilots in developing countries • Additional benefit: Farmers are exposed to intensive and better use of climate information in the decision making process; 23
  • 24. CAP Direct Payments (Greening) The 3 measures are: Maintaining permanent grassland (National, or Regional, or farm) Annual decrease of “Area grassland/total agriculture area” < 5% Crop diversification (farm level) At least 2 crops when arable land > 10 ha At least 3 crops when arable land > 30 ha Main crop cover < 75% of arable land, two main crops < 95% of the arable land Ecological focus areas of at least 5% of the arable area of the holding (farms with area >15 hectares) EFA: field margins, hedges, trees, fallow land, landscape features, biotopes, buffer strips, afforested area This figure will rise to 7% after 2019 (after impact assessment in 2017) NB: Organic farms, some Agri-environment schemes already compliant 25 November 2013 24
  • 25. Take-home messages • Implementation of climate smart agriculture is an issue of today • Suitable approaches are available; many are based on simple technologies • Climate smart agricultural practices tend to be synergistic. Synergism cannot be taken for granted. • Diverse pathways of climate smart agricultural development; no one-size-fits-all solutions. • Common stumbling blocks to adoption:  Initial investments and practical difficulties during transitional period  Costs mainly faced by farmers; benefits shared among wider community  Difficulty to achieve concerted action at several organisational levels  Minimum set of enabling conditions is often not in place 25 November 2013 25
  • 26. Thank you for your attention! Acknowledgements: Frank Dentener François Kayitakire Neil Hubbard Hervé Kerdiles www.jrc.ec.europa.eu Greet Maenhout Jean Michel Terres Maria Luisa Paracchini Andrej Ceglar www.jrc.ec.europa.eu Serving society Stimulating innovation Serving society Supporting legislation Stimulating innovation Supporting legislation
  • 27. Reserve list 25 November 2013 27
  • 28. 25 November 2013 28
  • 29. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity 25 November 2013 29
  • 30. Example 2: Intertwine semi-natural vegetation with cropland Detection of semi-natural vegetation in agricultural areas at the European scale and its impact on ecosystem services Weissteiner, A. Baraldi, M.L. Paracchini, J. Maes, G. Zulian In preparation C. García-Feced, C.J.
  • 31. Wheat – best adaptation (%) Source: JRC, PESETA II Project
  • 32. Wheat – best adaptation (%) Source: JRC, PESETA II Project
  • 33. CAPRESE project impact of different irrigation strategies Analysis of different irrigation strategies for growing maize in Europe Irrigation water requirement Relative difference in maize productivity 33
  • 34. Source: van den Berg et al., 2011
  • 35. Source: van den Berg et al., 2011
  • 36. Source: van den Berg et al., 2011

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