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Can we manage forests formultiple uses in the CongoBasin?Robert Nasi, Alain Billand, Manuel GuariguataYaoundé, 22/05/2013
 Timber• RIL and beyond… + Biodiversity• Use ecology, life history, considerwildlife… + Non Timber Forest Products• Tra...
The “Compatibility Continuum”Inactive ActiveCoincidentTimber
managementtools
mitigatesdamage
to
other
uses(roads,
skid
tra...
Modes of Interaction Independent (spatially segregated, or when there isno conflict of use for tree species with NTFP val...
Main Issues Many tropical tree species have both timber andnon-timber values that accrue to differentstakeholders Curren...
Multiple-uses in the CongoBasin
WoodOFAC, State of Forests 2010
Other goodsSource: OFAC, State of Forests 2010
Timber, management andbiodiversity
Land
use km2“Ordinary
lands” 448,801Logging
concessions 595.381Community
forests ≈
11.000Protected
areas 444,973 Source:
N...
Selective logging in the CongoBasin Timber remains the sole managed commodity Highly selective, few individuals (less th...
Impact
of
certification
on
harvest
intensityCerutti
et
al.
2011Certified concessionshave a significantlyreduced harvesting...
Harvesting
intensity
and
residual
standsNasi
&
Forni,
2006543210Areaimpacted(%)3020100 Rsq = 0.9427Number
of
trees
harvest...
Graphique symétrique(axesF1 etF2 :54.36 %)GroupeIndépendantInternationalAménagementencoursAménagéCertifiéNonaménagé234 567...
 Estimates of the value of thebushmeat trade range from US$42to US$205 million per year inWest-Central Africa. Current h...
Why a landscape approach? High mobility of wildlife (migration, dispersal, extensiveterritories…) Conserving Protected a...
Protected areas and loggingconcessions : surprisinglyclose neighborsOFAC, State of Forest 2008
National
ParksLogging
ConcessionsHunting
areasParks, Concessions, Hunting areas : where are flagship species ?Some surpris...
New land-usetypes Combine several land usetypes (e.g. loggingconcession, protected area,CBFM…) in one land-usemanagement ...
EnvironmentalservicesLocal
incomesTaxes,
fiscalrevenuesSustain
ruralpopulationMixed
area
:
protected
area
andconservation
...
 Realize the economic potential of theconservation side Manage informal sectors like hunting, fishing orNTFP extraction ...
Enabling conditions Starting funds are needed to cover initial transactioncosts The willingness of the production sector...
Set of key attributes Complexity Authenticity Continuity Heterogeneity Proximity Redundancy Resilience UniquenessG...
Management principles Maintain landscape heterogeneity Maintain large structurally complex patches ofnatural vegetation...
The Congo Basin has identified 12 Landscapes designed for sharedproduction and conservation management of forestsActors (p...
Some implications for tropicalforestry research
“Our major disciplines have long ago ceasedto be effective as separate, have in factsearched for ways of coming together…b...
New disciplinesSocialSciencesBiologicalSciences“CONSILIENCE: the methods and assumptions of any field of studyshould be co...
Some final comments Search for a globally accepted definition of sustainableforest management is pointless Management sh...
 Search for universally agreed definitions is pointless(forests or sustainability) Strive for continuous improvement to ...
Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin?
Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin?
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Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin?

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Robert Nasi gave this presentation on 22 May 2013 at a discussion forum during the two-day policy and science conference entitled "Sustainable forest management in Central Africa: Yesterday, today and tomorrow", organized by CIFOR and its partners and held in Yaounde, Cameroon.

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Transcript of "Can we manage forests for multiple uses in the Congo Basin?"

  1. 1. Can we manage forests formultiple uses in the CongoBasin?Robert Nasi, Alain Billand, Manuel GuariguataYaoundé, 22/05/2013
  2. 2.  Timber• RIL and beyond… + Biodiversity• Use ecology, life history, considerwildlife… + Non Timber Forest Products• Trade-offs but possible + Ecosystem services• Trade-offs but possible; appears incertification schemes (HCV); seriousaccountability issues… + Carbone• Several risks, trade-offs and issues …Against threats?• Climate change, invasive species, landconversion….
  3. 3. The “Compatibility Continuum”Inactive ActiveCoincidentTimber
managementtools
mitigatesdamage
to
other
uses(roads,
skid
trails,timber
inventorying)Timber
extractionbenefits
other
values(logging
gaps,directional
felling)Explicitly
manage
forboth
timber
and
NTFPvalues
  4. 4. Modes of Interaction Independent (spatially segregated, or when there isno conflict of use for tree species with NTFP value) Competitive—e.g., extraction of tree species withboth NTFP value for different stakeholders orexclusion of a given group of stakeholders Complementary—e.g., logging enhancesgrowth/regeneration of NTFP (all else being equal)
  5. 5. Main Issues Many tropical tree species have both timber andnon-timber values that accrue to differentstakeholders Current certification schemes diverge for timberand NTFPs Forestry education and training biased towardstimber Legal and regulatory frameworks dictatedseparately for timber and NTFPs Best harvesting practices/management protocolsfor NTFPs have little validation
  6. 6. Multiple-uses in the CongoBasin
  7. 7. WoodOFAC, State of Forests 2010
  8. 8. Other goodsSource: OFAC, State of Forests 2010
  9. 9. Timber, management andbiodiversity
  10. 10. Land
use km2“Ordinary
lands” 448,801Logging
concessions 595.381Community
forests ≈
11.000Protected
areas 444,973 Source:
Nasi
et
al,
2011Source:
Mégevand,
2013
  11. 11. Selective logging in the CongoBasin Timber remains the sole managed commodity Highly selective, few individuals (less than 2) of fewcommercial species (less than 5) represent more than75% of the volume harvested (less than 10m3/ha) Rotation cycles of about 25-30 years; Minimum cuttingdiameter rules; No post-harvest silviculture The area under proper management and certification isincreasingNasi et al. 2006; OFAC, State of Forest 2008, 2010
  12. 12. Impact
of
certification
on
harvest
intensityCerutti
et
al.
2011Certified concessionshave a significantlyreduced harvestingintensity
  13. 13. Harvesting
intensity
and
residual
standsNasi
&
Forni,
2006543210Areaimpacted(%)3020100 Rsq = 0.9427Number
of
trees
harvested/ha
  14. 14. Graphique symétrique(axesF1 etF2 :54.36 %)GroupeIndépendantInternationalAménagementencoursAménagéCertifiéNonaménagé234 56789101112131420212223261-1.5-1-0 .500 .511.5-1.5 -1 -0 .5 0 0 .5 1 1.5F1 (44.24 %)F2(10.12%)Variables supp. Observations- Actions concrètes ++Difficultésrencontrées--Ni les méthodes-Ni les capacitésactuellement-Malgréquelques actions-Vise la certification-Souhaite maintenirses efforts-> 30 essencesexploitéeesPas encorede résultatsMore Biodiversityactivities ++Moreproblemsexpressed++Sust. Mangt Plan under wayNo PlanWith PlanCertifiedNo methodsNo capacitiesLimited activitiesBasicintentions,Limited resultsActivities limited tolegal requirementLimited resultsMotivated CEO andsome staffLong term effortsEffective field activitiesBilland et al. 2009Pro-biodiversity activities in loggingconcessionsOnly certifiedconcessionsshow significantactivities in favorof biodiversity
  15. 15.  Estimates of the value of thebushmeat trade range from US$42to US$205 million per year inWest-Central Africa. Current harvest in Central Africaalone may well be in excess of 5million tons annually, couldrepresent more than 20 million hadeforested for pasture! 30 to 80% of the protein intake ofmany rural populationsBushmeat huntingin Congo Basin
  16. 16. Why a landscape approach? High mobility of wildlife (migration, dispersal, extensiveterritories…) Conserving Protected areas alone, will not be enough toconserve large sized/highly mobile species with hugeranges (e.g. Elephants) or locally rare plant species The contribution of production forests to biodiversityconservation is increasingly recognized (e.g. North Congo wheregorilla densities are higher in logging concessions than in the neighbouringNP)
  17. 17. Protected areas and loggingconcessions : surprisinglyclose neighborsOFAC, State of Forest 2008
  18. 18. National
ParksLogging
ConcessionsHunting
areasParks, Concessions, Hunting areas : where are flagship species ?Some surprising assessmentsNumber
of

ape
nests/km2OFAC, State of Forest 2008
  19. 19. New land-usetypes Combine several land usetypes (e.g. loggingconcession, protected area,CBFM…) in one land-usemanagement unit that wouldbecome an: Integratedproduction/conservationlandscape
  20. 20. EnvironmentalservicesLocal
incomesTaxes,
fiscalrevenuesSustain
ruralpopulationMixed
area
:
protected
area
andconservation
enterpriseProtectedAreaCertified
logging
concessionCommunityforestMunicipalforestAgro‐industryHunting,Gathering,InformalsectorsUrban,
social
spaceBilland & Nasi 2006
  21. 21.  Realize the economic potential of theconservation side Manage informal sectors like hunting, fishing orNTFP extraction for local livelihoods Use part of the income generated by theindustrial production side for the conservationarea for reciprocal benefits Foster certification (not limited to timberconsiderations)Basic rules
  22. 22. Enabling conditions Starting funds are needed to cover initial transactioncosts The willingness of the production sector to engageinto certification or other biodiversity friendly practices The willingness of the conservation community tocollaborate, share experiences and support theprivate sector in integrating conservation concerns inmanagement practices A proactive political support (creating specific land-use units with specific instances for decision making)or, at least, neutral (no undue interference from theState).
  23. 23. Set of key attributes Complexity Authenticity Continuity Heterogeneity Proximity Redundancy Resilience UniquenessGustafsson,
Laumonier,
Nasi
2009
  24. 24. Management principles Maintain landscape heterogeneity Maintain large structurally complex patches ofnatural vegetation Create buffers around sensitive areas Maintain or create corridors and stepping stones Use appropriate disturbance regimes inmanagement Maintain functional diversity Manage for keystone species Consider endemic, rare and threatened species
  25. 25. The Congo Basin has identified 12 Landscapes designed for sharedproduction and conservation management of forestsActors (public,private sectors)are aware aboutthe necessity toimprovecollaboration forconcerted orintegratedmanagementBut experiencesat field levelremain limitedSource : Carpe
  26. 26. Some implications for tropicalforestry research
  27. 27. “Our major disciplines have long ago ceasedto be effective as separate, have in factsearched for ways of coming together…butare restrained by institutional resistance andlack of vision” (Ron Burnett 2005)
  28. 28. New disciplinesSocialSciencesBiologicalSciences“CONSILIENCE: the methods and assumptions of any field of studyshould be consistent with the known and accepted facts in otherdisciplines” E.J. Wilson.AnthropologyEconomyPolicySociology…BotanyEcologyGeneticsZoology…Landscape
ecologyEcological
economyPolitical
ecologyLand
use
changeHuman
ecologyTransdisciplinarySciences
  29. 29. Some final comments Search for a globally accepted definition of sustainableforest management is pointless Management should be defined by societal demands Outcomes and results should be monitored based on agreedobjectives for management; unrealistic, unachievable orvague targets are of little use Good management can never be attained throughbureaucratic procedures alone. Best practices require able and motivated managers areavailable on site to address concerns on a day-to-day basis:capacity building and training are keys! Sound judgment remains the foundation of goodmanagement. Data can inform this judgment, but is not anend in itself
  30. 30.  Search for universally agreed definitions is pointless(forests or sustainability) Strive for continuous improvement to better outcomeswhen the “best” is unachievable Scale research appropriately to the research question Classical forest science has peaked! Grainger (2009) calls for a “new global forest science’” Burley (2004) believes that forest science can be“restored” with “new interdisciplinary approaches thatintegrate the work of biophysical scientists and socio-economic researchers”Research /Science
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