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Can we manage for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin?

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CIFOR scientist Robert Nasi gave this presentation on 8 September 2012 at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, South Korea, during a session co-hosted by CIFOR titled ‘Managing wild species …

CIFOR scientist Robert Nasi gave this presentation on 8 September 2012 at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, South Korea, during a session co-hosted by CIFOR titled ‘Managing wild species and systems for food security’.

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  • 1. Can we manage for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin? Workshop “Managing wild species and systems for food security” Robert Nasi World Conservation Congress, Jeju, 08/09/2012THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 2. Logging concessions,management and biodiversity THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 3. Land
use km2“Ordinary
lands” 448,801Logging
concessions 595.381Community
forests ≈
11.000Protected
areas 444,973 Designated
for Designated
for Land protection logging Area Area Countries Area
(km2) % % (km2) (km2) Cameroon 465,445 37,450 8.05 60,935 13.09 Central
African
Republic 620,152 76,743 12.37 34,293 5.53 Congo 342,766 35,993 10.50 147,127 42.93 Democratic
Rep.
of
Congo 2,328,225 261,063 11.21 248,276 10.66 Equatorial
Guinea 26,730 5,104 19.09 14,375 42.93 Gabon 262,538 28,620 10.96 90,375 34.60 CONGO
BASIN 4,045,856 444,973 11.00 595,381 14.72Source:
Nasi
et
al,
2011 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 4. Selective logging in the Congo Basin Timber remains the sole managed commodity Highly selective, few individuals (less than 2) of few commercial species (less than 5) represent more than 75% of the volume harvested (less than 10m3/ha) Rotation cycles of about 25-30 years; Minimum cutting diameter rules; No post-harvest silviculture The area under proper management and certification is increasing: Year 1995 2008 Managed 0 11.3
M
ha Certified 0 >3
M
ha Managed
in
prep. 0 21.4
M
ha Nasi et al. 2006; OFAC, State of Forest 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 5. Harvesting
intensity
and
residual
stands 30Area impacted (%) 20 Nasi
&
Forni,
2006 10 0 Rsq = 0.9427 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number
of
trees
harvested/ha THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 6. Impact
of
certification
on
harvest
intensity Certified concessions have a significantly reduced harvesting intensity Cerutti
et
al.
2011 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 7. Pro-biodiversity activities in logging concessions Graphique sym étrique More Biodiversity (axes F1 et F2 : 54.36 %) - activities Actions concrètes + ++Only certified 1. 5 Sust. Mangt en cours under way Aménagement Plan Basicconcessions intentions, Pas encore Limited results de résultatsshow significant 1 Activities limited to legal requirementactivities in favor 2 23 Limited resultsof biodiversity More problems 12 0. 5 6 - expressed 3 20 International Difficultés rencontrées 4 5 8 Certified 21 With Plan Aménagé F2 (10.12 %) 0 No methods 7 10 -No méthodes Ni les capacities Indépendant 14 Groupe Limited activities - Ni les capacités actuellement 11 C ertifié -0 . 5 - Malgré 9 1 quelques actions 13 Motivated - Vise la certification CEO and + - Souhaite maintenir 26 some staffses efforts Non aménagé Long term-exploitéees efforts > 30 essences 22 No Plan Effective field activities -1 ++ -1. 5 -1. 5 -1 -0 . 5 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 Billand et al. 2009 F1 (44.24 %) Vari bl s supp. a e Observati ns o THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 8. Managing for timber and wildlife THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 9. Bushmeat hunting in Congo Basin Estimates of the value of the bushmeat trade range from US$42 to US$205 million per year in West-Central Africa. Current harvest in Central Africa alone may well be in excess of 5 million tons annually, could represent more than 20 million ha deforested for pasture! 30 to 80% of the protein intake of many rural populations THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 10. Barriers and solutions Main barriers Specific solutions Sensitisation at the level of elitesBad governance, influence of Strenghthen local governance elites and corruption Strengthen law enforcement capacity Create incentives to encourage the pricvate Lack of motivation from sector to engage in taking wildlife into small or economically accountunstable logging companies Strengthen technical capacities at the level of national services and the private sector Unclear definition of Clarify and formalize roles and responsabilities among responsabilities stakeholders (TRAFFIC workshop, Libreville, June 2010) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 11. Barriers and solutions Main barriers Specific solutions Allocation of a specific budget for wildlife isssuesAdditional costs are incurred Logging revenus (taxes etc..) should also be to consider wildlife in allocated to support wildlife management management efforts Partnerships among stakeholders are crucial External funding is needed High demand of bushmeat Sensitization of urban consumers from external urban areasand little control/knowledge Better knowledge of the market chain about the market chain Lack of largely validated Develop research and coordinate the scientific methods and validation of monitoring methodsprotocols to monitor wildlife THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 12. Beyond boundaries:Landscape scale considerations THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 13. Why a landscape approach? High mobility of wildlife (migration, dispersal, extensive territories…) Conserving protected areas alone will not be enough to conserve large sized/highly mobile species with huge ranges (e.g. elephants) or locally rare plant species The contribution of production forests to biodiversity conservation is increasingly recognized (e.g. North Congo where gorilla densities are higher in logging concessions than in the neighbouring national park) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 14. Protected areas and loggingconcessions : surprisinglyclose neighborsOFAC, State of Forest 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 15. Parks, Concessions, Hunting areas : where are flagship species ?Some surprising assessments National
Parks Logging
Concessions Hunting
areas Number
of

ape
nests/km2 OFAC, State of Forest 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 16. Integrated production /conservation territory Combine (at least) two major land use types (e.g. a logging concession and a protected area) with community-based managed areas in one land-use management unit that could become an integrated production/conservation landscape Billand & Nasi 2006 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 17. Environmental services Urban,
social
space Local
incomes Agro‐ Certified Protected industry Taxes,
fiscal 
logging Area revenues 
concession Sustain
ruralMixed
area
:
protected
area
and Hunting, populationconservation
enterprise Gathering, Informal Community Municipal sectors Billand & Nasi 2006 forest forest THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 18. Basic rules Realize the economic potential of the conservation side Manage informal sectors like hunting, fishing or NTFP extraction for local livelihoods Use part of the income generated by the industrial production side for the conservation area for reciprocal benefits Foster certification (not limited to timber considerations) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 19. Enabling conditions Starting funds are needed to cover initial transaction costs The willingness of the production sector to engage into certification or other biodiversity friendly practices The willingness of the conservation community to collaborate, share experiences and support the private sector in integrating conservation concerns in management practices A proactive political support (creating specific land- use units with specific instances for decision making) or, at least, neutral (no undue interference from the State). THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 20. The Congo Basin has identified 12 Landscapes designed for sharedproduction and conservation management of forestsActors (public,private sectors)are aware aboutthe necessity toimprovecollaboration forconcerted orintegratedmanagementBut experiencesat field levelremain limited Source : Carpe THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 21. THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 22. To conclude…We believe that management for bothtimber and biodiversity is possible in theCongo but it requires new thinking interms of land-use types and strongerprivate–public partnerships associatingproduction and conservation parts of thelandscape and a renewed long-termsupport from the international donorcommunity.Nasi,
R.,
et
al.
Managing
for
timber
and
biodiversity
in
theCongo
Basin.
Forest
Ecol.
Manage.
(2011),
doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.04.005 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 23. Please visit us at www.cifor.org THINKING beyond the canopy

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