Are indigenous people conservationists?
  From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia




Laurène Fei...
Bungo, in Jambi
Pesisir,
in Lampung
Lore Lindu region, in
  Central Sulawesi
A changing landscape
Innocent victims of economic globalization,
   or active stakeholders of agriculture
              intensification?
Bungo, in Jambi   Lore Lindu region, in
                        Central Sulawesi




   Pesisir,
in Lampung
Quick perception survey
• Pros and cons of agroforestry vs monoculture

• Merits and draw-backs of the different plantatio...
Malaya


 Gunung Kemala       Pahmungan

         Tenumbang


           Sumber Agung
                                 Raj...
Bobo
Pandere             Sintuwu



                              Watumaeta


    Sungku
     Tomua                    Rat...
Pros and Cons of agroforests versus monoculture plantations
                     Pros                                  Con...
Merits of a plantation




No seasonality, weekly or monthly                 Jambi (1)
       income generation
          ...
100
  What will the landscape look like in 20 years?        90
                                                        80
...
Comparison of land uses profitability
                    For min, max and average prices (2008-2009)



                 ...
Neither passive, nor victim

• Farmers are active and informed actors of agriculture
  expansion and intensification.

• T...
Relevance to the global forest
           conservation issue
• Only economic benefits from forest can secure their
  conse...
Thank you for your attention.
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia
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Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia

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Feintrenie (CIFOR)
Stefan Schwarze (University of Göttingen)
Patrice Levang (IRD, CIFOR)

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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Are indigenous people conservationists: From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia

  1. 1. Are indigenous people conservationists? From forested landscapes to monocultures domination in Indonesia Laurène Feintrenie (CIFOR) Stefan Schwarze (University of Göttingen) Patrice Levang (IRD, CIFOR)
  2. 2. Bungo, in Jambi
  3. 3. Pesisir, in Lampung
  4. 4. Lore Lindu region, in Central Sulawesi
  5. 5. A changing landscape
  6. 6. Innocent victims of economic globalization, or active stakeholders of agriculture intensification?
  7. 7. Bungo, in Jambi Lore Lindu region, in Central Sulawesi Pesisir, in Lampung
  8. 8. Quick perception survey • Pros and cons of agroforestry vs monoculture • Merits and draw-backs of the different plantations • Perception of the landscape and prediction of its evolution • 9 to 12 villages per site, on a range of agriculture intensification and distance to the forest • 30 respondents/village • Total: 802 respondents
  9. 9. Malaya Gunung Kemala Pahmungan Tenumbang Sumber Agung Rajabasa Pekonmon Pardasuka Pagar Bukit
  10. 10. Bobo Pandere Sintuwu Watumaeta Sungku Tomua Ratu Moa Lelio
  11. 11. Pros and Cons of agroforests versus monoculture plantations Pros Cons Cultural Cultural arguments arguments Jambi (1) Jambi (1) Sentimental Sentimental Lampung Lampung attachment attachment Sulawesi Sulawesi Economic Economic results results Technical Technical advantages constraints - 50 100 - 50 100
  12. 12. Merits of a plantation No seasonality, weekly or monthly Jambi (1) income generation Lampung Low costs (investment and inputs) Sulawesi Easy commercialization Short immature period Low labour requirements High productivity Secondary products - 20 40 60 80
  13. 13. 100 What will the landscape look like in 20 years? 90 80 100 % Traditional 70 60 forested system 50 40 30 Sulawesi 20 10 Lampung 0 Jambi (1) Very Pleased Not pleased pleased 100 % Intensified 100 % Challenging traditional crop crop
  14. 14. Comparison of land uses profitability For min, max and average prices (2008-2009) Return to land of plantations Return to labour of plantations depending on prices at farm gate depending on prices at farm gate (€/ha) (€/manday) 4,500 50 4,000 45 3,500 40 3,000 35 30 2,500 25 2,000 20 1,500 15 1,000 10 500 5 - - (1) Adapted from Feintrenie et al, 2010 and complementary data from field survey; (2) Adapted from Seeberg-Elverfeldt et al, 2009; (3) Personal communication from Yulia Ramah Fitriana, 2010; (4) Adapted from Kusters, 2009 and complementary data from field survey
  15. 15. Neither passive, nor victim • Farmers are active and informed actors of agriculture expansion and intensification. • Their decisions are driven by economic opportunities and local/regional constraints. • Cultural and sentimental attachments to forest are weak in comparison with livelihoods needs and desires.
  16. 16. Relevance to the global forest conservation issue • Only economic benefits from forest can secure their conservation by local communities. • Devolution of forest management to local communities must consider this fact when aiming at forest conservation. • International funds raised for forest conservation could be used to promote education (grants for rural pupils) in order to fasten the process of agrarian transition.
  17. 17. Thank you for your attention.

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