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Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons
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Ape tourism and poverty in Asia: issues, themes, lessons

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Anne Russon of York University in Toronto, Canada explains why ape tourism, conservation and poverty alleviation are not always an easy fit, outlines some of the lessons learned from ape tourism in …

Anne Russon of York University in Toronto, Canada explains why ape tourism, conservation and poverty alleviation are not always an easy fit, outlines some of the lessons learned from ape tourism in the past, and gives some guidelines for best practice ape tourism in Asia. She gave this presentation at the ‘Linking Great Ape Conservation with Poverty Alleviation’ workshop hosted by CIFOR in January 2012.

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  • 1. Anne Russon York University, Toronto, Canada Yayasan BOS Scientific BoardKutai National Park, East Kalimantanorangutan behaviour researchprimate tourism & conservation
  • 2. ISSUESGreat apes(great& small)ConservationGreat apeTourismAlleviatepoverty:Economics
  • 3. ISSUES OrangutansGreat apes endangered ~ 55,000(great& small) closest human relatives semi-solitary protected: int’l, Indonesia slow, quietConservation * hard to find * do littleGreat apeTourismAlleviatepoverty:Economics
  • 4. ISSUESGreat apes endangered Too close(great& small) closest human relatives same needs protected: int’l, Indonesia same diseases intelligentConservation learn too wellGreat ape long livedTourismAlleviatepoverty:Economics
  • 5. ISSUESGreat apes endangered(great& small) closest human relatives protected: int’l, IndonesiaConservation #1 PRIORITYGreat apeTourismAlleviatepoverty:Economics
  • 6. ISSUESGreat apes endangered(great& small) closest human relatives protected: int’l, Indonesia Great apes wellbeingConservation #1 PRIORITY Max 4 touristsGreat ape regulations&ethics 1 hr/dayTourism > 10 m health, masksAlleviatepoverty:Economics
  • 7. ISSUESApes endangered(great& small) closest human relatives protected: int’l, IndonesiaConservation #1 PRIORITYGreat ape regulations&ethicsTourism conservationvs. economics long-term: dev, change, impact enforcement deliver: apes, authority limits sustain: control deterioration cons > econAlleviate T – G – GApoverty: competitionEconomics
  • 8. ISSUESGreat apes endangered(great& small) closest human relatives protected: int’l, IndonesiaConservation #1 PRIORITYGreat ape regulations&ethicsTourism conservationvs. economics long-term: dev, change, fallout deliver : apes, authority sustain: control deteriorationAlleviate hopesvs. realitiespoverty: benefits = income - costsEconomics
  • 9. LESSONS LEARNED History of orangutan tourism  over 40 years of operation  rehabilitants: most  wild: low numbers, combined with rehabilitants, parks  IUCN / RI law: NO rehabilitant tourism Evidence  OU/GA experts’ experience, evaluative studies  behaviour, disease, impact (benefits, costs)
  • 10. Tourists - Guides - Great Apes
  • 11. Things go wronghttp://www.igcp.org/touched-by-a-wild-mountain-gorilla/
  • 12. Crowding in Dellatore 2007Rijksen & Meijaard 1999
  • 13. Contact Rijksen & Meijaard 1999 Brend
  • 14. Dellatore 2007 Feeding Bali Indonesia tours Dellatore 2007
  • 15. Waiting Dellatore 2007
  • 16. LESSONS LEARNED* REALITIES ≠ HOPES Control  Extremely difficult: T, G, OU are wild animals with other agendas Economics  Income: unreliable, low to locals and to conservation, leakage high  Costs: long term, to locals: area damage, aggression (crop-raid) C-E  Long-term: economics priority over conservation; disease, stress Improvement  Some response to lessons learned  Rehabilitant tourism “stopped” * much from rehabilitant tourism
  • 17. THEMESPriorities Conservation and ethicsLessons learned Know and applyOrangutan experts EssentialLong-term view Policy, plans, structuresSize Start and stay smallThings will go wrongControl Enforce; monitor, evaluate; Prevention, problem-solve
  • 18. RECOMMENDATIONSorangutan tourism – conservation – poverty alleviation NOT AN EASY FITSeek other economic alternatives Endowed trusts to support local develop. Nat’l enterprise development, micro-credit Other conservation work (reforestation)If you proceed Don’t start without appropriate assessments Diversify tourism beyond orangutans Top priority: orangutan conservation Defer to orangutan experts, lessons learned Institute & enforce int’l regulations, ethics: nb. IUCN guidelines for great ape tourism
  • 19. Purpose of Tourism Guidelines To document current best practice in design and implementation of great ape tourism as a conservation tool. These guidelines also:•Emphasise the risks of great ape tourism• Reinforce message that tourism is not a panacea• Conclude that if conservation focus cannot be sustained, then tourism should not be considered
  • 20. Tourism Guidelines Content• History of great ape tourism – 30+ yrs experience• Lessons learned from this history – 20 topics!• Impact analysis• Guiding principles underlying best practice• Based on all the above … • Detailed recommendations for best practice in developing and managing great ape tourism.
  • 21. Nine Guiding Principles Underlying Best Practice in Ape Tourism1. Tourism is not a panacea for great ape conservation or revenue generation.2. Tourism can enhance long-term support for the conservation of great apes and their habitat.3. Conservation comes first—it must be the primary goal at any great ape site and tourism can help fund it.
  • 22. Nine Guiding Principles Underlying Best Practice in Ape Tourism4. Great ape tourism should only be developed if the anticipated conservation benefits, as identified in impact studies, significantly outweigh the risks.5. Enhanced conservation investment and action at ape tourism sites must be sustained in perpetuity.6. Great ape tourism management must be based on sound and objective science.
  • 23. Nine Guiding Principles Underlying Best Practice in Ape Tourism7. Benefits and profit for communities adjacent to great ape habitat should be maximised.8. Profit to private sector partners and others who earn income linked with tourism is important, but should NOT drive development or expansion9. Comprehensive understanding of potential impacts must guide tourism development; positive impacts from tourism must be maximised and negative impacts must be avoided or, if inevitable, better understood and mitigated.
  • 24. THANK YOU

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