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Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia
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Study of the genetic diversity of the genus PassifloraL. and its distribution in Colombia

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  • 1. Study of the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its distribution in Colombia
  • 2. People involved in the study CIRAD • Philippe FELDMANN • Geo COPPENS d’EECKENBRUGGE • Ange-Marie RISTERUCCI BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL – CIAT • Andrew JARVIS • Xavier SCHELDEMAN Ginés-Mera Fellowship
  • 3. Context  Genetic resources in Colombia (cultivated species)  Passion fruit priorities: - Collection and characterization - Taxonomy problems - Conservation problems
  • 4. General objective To study the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its biogeographic distribution in Colombia.
  • 5. Specific objectives • To map the distribution and the diversity of Colombian Passifloraceae species using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). • To characterize the morphologic and molecular diversity at inter- and intra-specific levels. • To evaluate the potential of Passiflora as an indicator group to evaluate the risks of biodiversity erosion and take them into account in the development of strategies for in situ genetic resources.
  • 6. Introduction 1. Taxonomy 2. Reproduction Biology 3. Distribution 4. Uses 5. Cultivated species
  • 7. 1. Passifloraceae family Taxonomy 18 genera Killip (1938) ca. 650 species Genus Passiflora L. 22 subgenera America ca. 573 species Africa America Asia Asia Feuillet & McDougal (2003) 4 subgenera Astrophea Decaloba Deidamioides Passiflora
  • 8. Subgenus ASTROPHEA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003)  Astrophea Killip (1938) - Arborescent - American - 2n = 24
  • 9. Subgenus DECALOBA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003)  Decaloba  Psilanthus  Murucuja Killip (1938)  Pseudomurucuja  Apodogyne - Climbers - America South Asia and Australia - 2n = 12, 24, 36, 72
  • 10. Subgenus PASSIFLORA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003) Passiflora Tacsonia Distephana Killip (1938) Manicata Dysosmia - Climbers - American - 2n = 18, 20 (Dysosmia)
  • 11. Subgenus DEIDAMIOIDES (Feuillet & MacDougal)  Deidamioides Killip  Tryphostemmatoides - Climbers - American - 2n = ??
  • 12. 2. Biology of reproduction • Allogamous: cross-pollination • Cytogenetic : 2n = 12, 18, 20, 24, 36, 72 x=6y9 • Heredability: paternal / biparental Muschner et al. (2006) Hansen et al. (2007) • Heteroplasmy Mráček (2005)
  • 13. Pollination syndromes
  • 14. 3. Distribution of the genus Passiflora L. 22 species Subg. Decaloba
  • 15. 4. Uses Other… Ornamental Food Pharmacopeia Liquors Medicinal
  • 16. 5. Cultivated species in Colombia
  • 17. Economic importance – International markets P. edulis f. flavicarpa P. edulis f. edulis P. ligularis Yellow maracuja - Maracuyá Purple maracuja - Gulupa Sweet granadilla
  • 18. Economic importance – International markets P. tripartita var. mollissima P. tarminiana P. maliformis Curuba de Castilla Curuba India Cholupa
  • 19. Economic importance – International markets P. quadrangularis P. popenovii P. alata Giant granadilla - Badea Granadilla de Quijos Maracuja doce
  • 20. Study Components I- Diversity distribution in Colombia (GIS) 1.a. Biogeography and conservation 1.b. Potential distribution and adaptation II- Morphological diversity (descriptors) III- Genetic diversity (CAPS – DNAcp/mt)
  • 21. I – Diversity Distribution in Colombia (SIG) 1a. Biogeography and conservation of Colombian Passifloraceae .
  • 22. Reported species HERBARIA National PSO - HAU - COL - FAUC - CUVC - FMB VALLE - MEDEL - CHOCO – TOLI - CAUP AFP - UIS – CDMB - COAH – JAUM - HUQ SURCO Foreign P : Museum d’Histoire Naturelle – Paris – France MO : Missouri Botanical Garden – USA MA : Real Jardin Botánico – Madrid – Espagne K : Kew Garden – London - Grande-Bretagne NY : New York Botanical Garden– USA LITERATURE Killip (1938, 1960), Escobar (1988, 1989) etc. 3.375 georeferenced data
  • 23. Diversity distribution of the American Passion Fruits 16 3.375 georeferenced data 4 23.5º N Tropic of Cancer 167 reported species 20 14 70 20 (26 new species for 15 17 10 10 18 the country) 55 13 25 78 31 48 53 30 32 36 167 0º 90 73 127 48 Maximum Diversity in the American Tropic of Capricorn 2 16 Andean Region, 19 -23.5º S especially in 3 Colombia and Ecuador Diversity Centre
  • 24. Species spatial distribution High density in the central mountain region. Low density North-East and South of the Andes. Very marked low density in lowlands, especially in the Orinoquian and Amanzonian regions. DIVA-GIS software
  • 25. Expeditions and collected samples • Species area richness and collection gaps • Access permits (MMA - Ministerio del Medio Ambiente) • Public order 555 collections from 17 of 32 departments TOTAL : 3.930 OBSERVATIONS
  • 26. Species distribution by Biogoegraphic region Elevation Caribbean (38) Diversity concentrated in the Andean Region Pacific Andes Orinoquia (36) (123) (19) Amazonia (44)
  • 27. Colombian Biogeography & Passifloracea Species Pacific Andes Caribbean Amazonia Orinoquia
  • 28. Passifloraceae distribution in Colombia (Maximum Distance vs. Circular Area) 2 697E-6*x 70 2 y = 21.8046+0.0024*x+9.3697E-6*x R = 0.779 R2 = 0.7709 60 Species of continental P. vitifolia distribution Species of P. foetida 50 regional distribution and P. auriculata 40 common P. quadrangularis endemic species CA50 (km 2) P. nitida 30 P. maliformis P. mollis Endemic P. mixta P. cumbalensis P. menispermifolia P. ligularis 20 species P. suberosa P.arborea P. oerstedii P. capsularis P. seemannii P. coriaceae P.misera P. biflora P..coccinea P. rubra P. spinosa P. antioquiensis 10 P. micropetala P. serratodigitata P. involucrata D. parviflora 0 0 200 400 400 600 800 1000 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 MaxD (km)
  • 29. f. Threat status of Passifloraceae • Circular area CA50 • Maximum Distance MaxD • Number of records • Date of records UICN Categories EX: Extinct EW: Extinct in the wild CR: Critically endangered EN: Endangered VU: Vulnerable NT: Near threatened LC: Least concern DD: Deficient Data
  • 30. 1. Diversity and potentiel distribution 1b. Diversity distribution and in situ conservation of the Colombians Passifloraceae.
  • 31. Software DIVA-GIS Species richness and diversity Herbarium data: 3.330 Literature data: 45 Collection data: 555 3.930 georeferenced data
  • 32. Species potential distribution Species richness 1 2 Nine ultra- diverse zones in 3 the Andes, four sub-explored (1, 6, 8, 9) 5 4 7 6 9 8 “Hotspot” Software DIVA-GIS
  • 33. Protected areas In situ conservation “Hotspot”
  • 34. Ultra-diverse zones vs. Coffee growing ecotopes Small reserves and micro-basin management Conservation strategies • Corridor creation • Crop systems Software DIVA-GIS
  • 35. Conclusions • The highest number of species are located between 1.000 and 2.000 m in fragmentation forests. • Nine ultra-diverse (hotspot) and non-protected zones in the Andes. • There is no geographic relation between richness and endemism. • There is a need for urgent conservation strategies. • Of the 167 recorded species, 42 have edible fruits and most are not used.
  • 36. II. Morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora L.
  • 37. Collection and characterization (ex situ conservation)  Collections  Tenerife (El Cerrito – Valle del Cauca) – 2800 m  El Moral (El Cerrito – Valle del Cauca) – 2400 m  San Joaquín (El Tambo – Cauca) – 1800 m  Paraguacito (Buenavista – Quindío) – 1250 m  Arauca (Risaralda – Caldas) – 1000 m  In situ (collections)  Plant material 124 accessions 60 species 9 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
  • 38. List of 127 descriptors ORGAN Qualitative Characters (84) Qunatitative Characters (43) Stem Form, antocianine, pubescence Internodes Tendril Antocianine Longitude Stipule Permanence, antocianine, pubescence and Dimensions form Leaf Polymorphism, form, colour, presence, Lobule longitude, angle between lateral antocianine and pubescence, type, margin rib, petiole—sinus distance, number of margin teeth Petiole Nectary form Longitude and number of nectaries Bract Form, union, permanency Dimensions Flower Form, colours and pubescence of different Number, orientation and dimension of parts, number and series of filaments, sepal different parts and petal union, antocianine and chlorophyll on sepals and hypanthium Fruit Pigmentation, pubescence, form, Dimensions, weight consistency, anthracnosis symptoms
  • 39. Relative variance components – Quantitative characters 50
  • 40. d. Factor loadings from a Principal Component Analysis - PCA COMPONENTS 83% total variance ACP - Factor loadings Descriptors 1 2 3 4 5 STDI -0.088 0.215 -0.892 -0.023 0.041 LEMS 0.353 0.365 0.152 0.041 0.759 LELC 0.019 0.571 -0.686 0.009 -0.195 LENN -0.017 0.040 0.011 0.962 0.014 PENN 0.648 0.407 0.013 -0.055 0.158 PDDI 0.135 0.847 -0.287 0.010 0.145 PDLF -0.054 -0.136 -0.943 -0.007 -0.044 PDBS -0.054 -0.113 -0.973 -0.006 -0.046 Cp.1: Flower length BRLR 0.296 0.723 0.186 -0.091 0.240 FLPL 0.501 0.774 -0.021 0.235 0.042 FLPW 0.713 0.595 -0.024 0.095 0.028 Cp.2: Flower width and bract shapeFLSL 0.577 0.716 0.036 0.243 -0.028 FLSW 0.520 0.754 0.034 0.074 -0.108 FLLE 0.960 0.179 0.045 0.017 0.090 FLHL 0.904 0.063 0.086 -0.100 0.119 Cp.3: Stem with, peduncle FLHL 0.824 0.208 0.026 -0.080 -0.137 branching and leaf length FLCN -0.521 0.723 0.034 -0.007 -0.329 FLFL 0.529 0.651 0.082 0.097 0.171 FLSF 0.677 0.658 0.076 0.061 -0.049 FLOL 0.454 0.693 0.067 0.073 0.263 Cp.4: Number of nectaries on leaf FLSL 0.964 0.064 0.047 0.033 0.099 FLOP 0.711 0.236 0.099 0.363 0.214 margin BRWI/BRLE -0.160 0.718 -0.221 -0.131 0.241 FLNC/FLHD 0.699 0.056 0.042 0.043 0.368 Expl.Var 7.610 6.496 3.336 1.256 1.238 Cp.5: Leaf serration Prp.Totl 0.317 0.271 0.139 0.052 0.052 % total varianza 46.028 16.999 11.138 4.913 3.986
  • 41. PCA – Three-dimensional plot of the scores for Passiflora accessions Manicata Tacsonia Passiflora Psilanthus Distephana Dysosmia Decaloba Tryphostemmatoides Astrophea
  • 42. 32 Discriminant qualitative characters between subgenera Feuillet & MacDougal (2003) Astrophea Decaloba Killip (1938), Escobar (1988), MacDougal (1994) Feuillet & MacDougal (2003) Astrophea Decaloba Astrophea Astrophea Decaloba Decaloba Psilanthus Passiflora Distephana Dy Passiflor Killip (1938), Escobar (1988), number (1994) Species/accession MacDougal (1994) Astrophea Decaloba Astrophea n= 3/4 Psilanthus Decaloba n= 17/31 Passiflora n= 1/1 Psilanthus Distephana Dysosmia 19/44 Passiflora n= Distephana n= 1/2 Dysosmia Tacsonia n Main number pollinators Species/accessionn= 3/4 n= medium (honey) bees n= 17/31 3/4 n= 1/1 n= 17/31 to large bees19/44 small n= - wasps n= 1/1 sword-billed n= 1/2 large (carpenter) bees n= 19/44 1/2 n= hummingbirdsn= 1/2 n= 1/2 n= 16/36 Main pollinators (honey) bees medium small tomedium (honey) bees large bees - wasps sword-billed large bees - wasps (carpenter) bees sword-billed hummingbird small to large hummingbirds bees large (carpenter) bees sword-billed hummingbirds bees Chromosome number 2n = 24 hummingbird 2n = 12, 22, 24, 36 hummingbird 2n = 12 2n = 18 2n = 18 hummingbird 2n = Chromosome number24range Altitudinal 2n = 2n = 12, 22, 24, 24 1.000 - 2.200 m 2n = 36 60 - 2.700 m 18 2n = 2n = 12, 22, 24, 36 12 2n = 2n = 12 2.600 -= 18 2n 3.200 20 - 2.400 m 2n 2n 18 18, 20, 22 = = 2n = 18 2n 50= 18 2n = 18, 20, 22 - - 1.200 m 30 Altitudinal range - 2.200 m 1.000 Descriptors 60 -1.000 -m 2.700 2.200 m 2.600 - 3.200 - 2.700 m 60 20 - 2.400 m 2.600 - 3.200 50 - 1.200 m 30 - 1.200 m 20 - 2.400 m 50 - 1.200 m - 3.700 m - 1.200 m 2.100 30 Descriptors Habit tree vine vine vine vine vine Habittree Stem section vine tree irregular vine vine terete/angularvine vine angular vine vine terete/angular/winged vine vine vine terete vine terete v sectionSecondery xylema Stem irregular terete/angular irregular present angularabsent terete/angular terete/angular/winged angular absent terete/angular/winged terete absent terete terete/angular absent terete terete absent a Secondery xylema position presentTendril absent present absent absent absent axillary absent absent axillary absent absent axillary absent absent absent axillary absent axillary a absent Stipule Tendril position axillary absent short triangular axillary axillary setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate axillary axillary setaceous axillary axillary setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate axillary axillary axillary linear axillary foliaceoa Stipule Stipule nectaries (conspicuous) short triangular absent setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate short triangular absent setaceous setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate absent setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate setaceous/linear/foliaceous-aristate setaceous linear absent/present (P. maliformis ) foliaceous-aristate linear present present foliaceous-aristate f absent Leaf lobation Stipule nectaries (conspicuous) absent absent one absent absent three absent/present (P. maliformis ) absent three one/three/more ) present absent/present present (P. maliformis absent present three present three a one Leaf lobationLeaf base three one cuneate-rounded three three cuneate-rounded/cordate/ one/three/more three cordate one/three/morethree three cuneate-rounded/cordateone/three three cordate three cordate t cuneate-rounded Leaf base cuneate-rounded/cordate/ cuneate-rounded cordatepeltate (P. coriacea and P. guatemalensis ) cuneate-rounded/cordate/ cuneate-rounded/cordate cordate cordate cuneate-rounded/cordate cordate cuneate-rounded/cordate cordate cordate c Leaf apex obtuse/acute peltate (P. coriacea and P. guatemalensis ) rounded/obtuse/acute peltate (P. coriacea and P. guatemalensis ) acute/very acute rounded to very acute acute acute Leaf margin obtuse/acute Leaf apex rounded/obtuse/acuteobtuse/acute entire entire/serrate (P. adenopoda ) acute acute/very acute rounded/obtuse/acute rounded to very entire rounded to very acute acute acute/very acute entire/serrate acute acute/very acute acute serrate acute serrate o Leaf marginLaminar nectaries entire adenopoda )absent entire/serrate (P.entire entire/serratepresent/absent (five species)b entire (P. adenopoda ) entire/serrate entire serrate entire/serrateabsent present serrate serrate serrate absent serrate absent s absent Leaf margin nectaries (conspicuous) (five species)babsent Laminar nectaries present/absent absent presentabsent/sinus/ absent present/absent (five species)b present absent absent absent absent/sinus absent absent absent sinus absent absent a Leaf margin nectaries (conspicuous) absent absent/sinus/ absent absent/sinus/all margin (P.absent/sinus ) absent adenopoda absent sinus absent/sinus lateral lobe (P. edulis f. edulis ) absent absent/sinus (P. jardinensis ) sinus absent a Petiolar nectaries all margin (P. adenopoda ) absent absent/orbicular (P. adenopoda )/ f. edulis ) absent all except auriculate orbicular absent all margin (P. adenopoda )lateral lobe (P. edulis lateral lobe (P. edulis f. edulis ) cylindrical (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) Petiolar nectaries absent absent/orbicular absent (P. adenopoda )/ absent all except auriculate absent/orbicular (P. adenopoda )/ absent orbicularall except auriculate absent linear/orbicular orbicular absent l cylindrical (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) /auriculate (P. auriculata ) cylindrical (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) Dorsal nectaries present absent absent absent absent absent /auriculate (P. auriculata ) /auriculate (P. auriculata ) Peduncle branching present absent/present (P. sexflora ) absent absent absent absent Dorsal nectaries present absent present absent absent absent absent absent absent absent absent absent absent a Bract shape linear setaceous/linear/ linear foliaceous linear pinnatis Peduncle branching present absent/present (P. sexflora ) present absent/present (P. sexfloraabsent absent ) absent absent absent absent absent absent absent a foliaceous (P. adenopoda , P. guatemalensis ) Bractlinear shape setaceous/linear/linear linear setaceous/linear/ foliaceous linear linear foliaceous pinnatisect foliaceous linear pinnatisect f /absent (four species)* foliaceous (P. adenopoda , P. guatemalensis ) foliaceous (P. adenopoda , P. guatemalensis ) Nectary on bract absent absent absent absent/present present absent /absent (four species)* /absent (four species)* Flower orientation erect erect/intermediate/pendular pendular erect/intermediate/pendular erect erect Nectary on bract absent absent absent absent absent absent/present absent present absent/present absent present absent absent a Corolla shape reflex intermediate/campanulate campanulate intermediate/reflex reflex intermed Flower orientation erect erect erect/intermediate/pendular erect/intermediate/pendular pendular erect/intermediate/pendularpendular erect erect/intermediate/pendular erect erect erect/intermediate/pendularerect e Dominant corolla color white white red (pink) white/red red white Corolla shape reflex reflex intermediate/campanulate intermediate/campanulate intermediate/reflex campanulate campanulate reflex intermediate/reflex intermediate/reflex reflex intermediate/reflex r campanulate/intermediate/reflex Corona type filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filament Dominant corolla color white white white white red (pink) white/red red (pink) red white/red white red white red (including pink or orange) r Corona filaments sickle-sword-shaped linear linear linear linear linear Corona type filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous filamentous tuberculous/ filamentous f free free free free fused at base free Corona filaments sickle-sword-shaped linear sickle-sword-shaped linearlinear linear linear linear linear linear linear filamentous, linear linear l Number of corona series uniseriate biseriate/ uniseriate pentaseriate biseriate 3- to 5-s free free free free free free free free fused at base free fused at base free free f uniseriate (P. guatemalensis and P. adenopoda )/ Number of corona series uniseriate biseriate/ uniseriate biseriate/ uniseriate pentaseriate uniseriate biseriate pentaseriate 3- to 5-seriate biseriate uni- to 5-seriate 3- to 5-seriate p triseriate (P. filipes and P. magadalenae ) uniseriate (P. guatemalensis and P. adenopoda )/ uniseriate (P. guatemalensis and P. adenopoda )/ Corona color-clear (longest row) white white white red white triseriate (P. filipes and P. magadalenae ) triseriate (P. filipes and P. magadalenae ) Corona color-darkest (longest row) yellow white/purple/ white purple red purple Corona color-clear (longest row) white white white white white red white white red white/purple white p yellow (P. guatemalensis ) white (P. guazumaefolia ) Corona color-darkest (longest row)white/purple/ yellow yellow white/purple/ white purple white red purple purple red purple purple p Petals present present/ present present present present yellow (P. guatemalensis ) yellow (P. guatemalensis )white (P. guazumaefolia ) white (P. guazumaefolia ) white (P. jardinensis ) absent (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) Petalspresent present/ present present/ present present present present present present present present present p Sepal awn absent absent/present absent present present present absent (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) absent (P. coriaceae and P. suberosa ) Nectar chamber ring present absent absent present present present Sepalabsent awn absent/present absent absent/present absent present absent present present present present present present p Hypanthium campanulate flat tubular campalunate tubular campanu Nectar chamber ring present absent present absent absent present absent present present present present present present p Limen present present absent present present present Hypanthium campanulate flat campanulate flat tubular campalunate tubular tubular campalunate campanulate tubular tubular campanulate t Ovary shape tricostate globose globose globose globose globose Limen present present present presentabsent present absent present present present present present present p Fruit shape globose globose/ elongate globose/ globose globose Ovary shape tricostate globose tricostate globoseglobose globose globose globose globose globose globose globose globose g elongate (P. rubra and P. capsularis ) elongate (P. quadrangularis ) Fruit globose shape globose/ globose globose/ elongate globose/ elongate globose globose/ globose globose elongate/ globose e Categorized (from quantitatives(P. rubra and P. capsularis ) elongate traits) elongate (P. rubra and P. capsularis ) quadrangularis ) elongate (P. elongate (P. quadrangularis ) globose (P. pinnatistipula ) Stem diameter Categorized (from quantitatives traits) ≥ 120 mm ≤ 20 mm ≤ 20 mm ≥ 30 mm ≥ 30 mm ≤ 20 mm < 60 mm < 60 mm Stem ≥ 120 mm diameter ≤ 20 mm ≥ 120 mm ≤ 20 mm mm ≤ 20 ≥ 30 mm ≤ 20 mm ≥ 30 mm≥ 30 mm ≤ 20 mm ≥ ≥ 30 mm 30 mm ≤ 20 mm ≥ Leaf length > 215 mm < 190 mm < 190 mm < 190 mm < 190 mm < 190 m < 60 mm < 60 mm< 60 mm < < 60 mm 60 mm < < 190 mm (P. sphaerocarpa ) Leaf lengthmm > 215 < 190 mm > 215 mm < 190< 190 mm mm < 190 mm < 190 mm < 190 mm 190 mm < < 190 mm < < 190 mm 190 mm < 190 mm < Sepal length ≤ 30 mm ≤ 30 mm > 30 mm > 30 mm > 30 mm ≤ 30 mm < 190 mm (P. sphaerocarpa ) < 190 mm (P. sphaerocarpa ) ≤ 30 mm (six species)ª Sepal≤ 30 mm length ≤ 30 mm ≤ 30 mm ≤ 30 mm mm > 30 > 30 mm > 30 mm > 30 mm> 30 mm ≤ 30 mm > > 30 mm 30 mm ≤ 30 mm > Androgynophore length < 23 mm < 23 mm > 25 mm < 23 mm > 25 mm < 23 mm ≤ 30 mm (six species)ª ≤ 30 mm (six species)ª ≤ 30 mm (P. luzmarina and P. mathewsii ) Androgynophore length < 23 mm < 23 mm < 23 mm < 23 mm mm > 25 < 23 mm > 25 mm > 25 mm< 23 mm < 23 mm > > 25 mm 25 mm < 23 mm >
  • 43. e. Qualitative data dendrogram (nNeighbour Joining, 32 characters) n = 12 n=6 n = 10 n=9 n=6 n = ?? Distances Sokal & Michener
  • 44. Conclusions The new descriptors list has permitted to rank species together with taxonomy in a coherent way. However, there are some exceptions. The analysis is coherent with Killip's classification (1938) at the subgenus level. Descriptors related to the flower permit a higher discrimination between subgenera and species.
  • 45. III. Genetic diversity (CAPS – DNAcp/mt)
  • 46. Taxon sampling • 213 individuals • 151 species • 15 subgenera (Killip, 1938) Origin • Collections in Colombia – 75 % • Passion Fruit National Collections – Blois (France) – 22 % • Royal Botanical Garden – Meise (Belgium) – 2 % • Cameroon and Gabon - 1% (outgroup)
  • 47. Tecnic – Markers RFLP-PCR (2 couple of primers / 6 enzymes)
  • 48. Outgroup Previous studies Yockteng & Nadot (2004) Nuclear Sequences ncpGS - 91 species - 17 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
  • 49. Previous studies Hansen et al. (2006) Chloroplas Sequences TrnL / TrnT outgroup - 57 species - 16 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
  • 50. Ladder P. oerstedii P. maliformis P. smithii P. lehmannii P. alata P. ambigua P. cincinnata P. garckei P. popenovii P. trisulca P. caerulea P. quadrangularis P. citrifolia P. coriaceae P. filipes P. erytrophylla P. suberosa P. cuneata P. magdalenae P. linearistipula P. antioquiensis P. parritae P. tricuspis P. alnifolia P. luzmarina N1B1- TS1- P. flexipes P. mixta P. tarminana (HpaII) TS1-TS2 (HpaII) (HpaII) N1B1-N1C (HpaII) Ladder Chlorotypes are easier to interpret than mitotypes Cytoplasmatic genome inter-specific variation Chloroplast Mitochondria 372 haplotypes 280 haplotypes
  • 51. Observed variation per primer-enzyme combination (haplotypes) Primers Hinf I Rsa I Hpa II Hae III Hha I Taq I PC1 – PC2 Decaloba two group - Impossible Decaloba three groups Decaloba - Adenia - Decaloba three groups Decaloba - other Adenia - Barteria - to interpret - other subgenera Smeathmannia - other - Passiflora two subgenera Smeathmannia - other subgenera groups - Tacsonia Chloroplastic subgenera two group - other subgenera TS1 – TS2 Decaloba two groups Decaloba three groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba three groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba three groups - Passiflora four - Passiflora four - Passiflora three - Passiflora two - Passiflora two - Passiflora two groups - (Barteria - groups - Astrophea - groups - Adenia - groups - other groups - other groups - Distephana - Smeathmannia) - other subgenera (Barteria - subgenera subgenera Astrophea - Adenia - other subgenera Smeathmannia) - (Barteria - other subgenera Smeathmannia) - other subgenera N41 – N42 Decaloba two groups Decaloba three groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba two - Decaloba two groups Impossible - Passiflora - - Passiflora two Passiflora four groups Passiflora five groups - Passiflora three to interpret Mitochondrial Astrophea - (Barteria groups - Adenia - - Tacsonia two groups - Adenia - other groups - Barteria two - Smeathmannia) - other subgenera - Barteria two groups subgenera groups - other other subgenera - other subgenera subgenera N1B – N1C Decaloba three groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba two groups Decaloba two groups - Passiflora two - Passiflora two - Passiflora two - Passiflora two - Passiflora two - Tacsonia - Barteria groups - Tacsonia two groups - Tacsonia - groups - Tacsonia two groups - Tacsonia groups - Tacsonia two two groups - Adenia - groups - (Barteria - (Barteria - groups - (Barteria - three two - other groups - Murucuja - Smeathmannia) - Smeathmannia) - Smeathmannia) - subgenera Adenia - other Adenia - other Adenia - other other subgenera subgenera subgenera subgenera
  • 52. AFTD of Chloroplastic data OUTGROUP
  • 53. Tryphostemmatoides Astrophea Chloroplast DNA - Three big groups  Decaloba – much better separated and structured  Passiflora - little structure  Astrophea - Tryphostemmatoides - Genus monophyly ? NJ, distance de Sokal & Michener
  • 54. Mitochondrial DNA Tacsonia  Separation of the Decaloba group, better structured Astrophea  Strong approximation of Astrophea Tryphostemmatoides and Tryphostemmatoides to Passiflora  Little cohesion with morphology at the section and series levels. Tacsonia  Geographic structuring by: - altitude range (Tacsonia, stip. ren.) - region (Tacsonia, Ecuador/Colombia).  Genus monophyly ?
  • 55. Conclusions • Divergence between morphologic, chloroplastic and mitochondrial data explains plastid transmission modes: Chloroplastic genome transmission is basically paternal or biparental in the Passiflora group, and maternal in the mitochondiral genome. • The doubt on whether the Passiflora genus is not monophyletic imposes a re-examination of the generic classification of Passifloraceae. • The data set must be interpreted taking into account the geological context of tropical flora separation and the formation of the Andean mountain range. • RETICULATE EVOLUTION
  • 56. Future prospects Passion fruits and biodiversity Complete and verify our knowledge on little or non-exploited zones and tune further geographic analyses to test passion fruits as an indicator group. Passion fruits and genetic resources Explore the possibility of interspecific hybridization to compensate for the deficiencies of the main cultivated species. Passifloraceae studies and their evolution - Sequences of other genome regions. - Study hybridization and introgression between sympatric species (compatibility, molecular markers and cytogenetics) to understand cross- linking mechanisms. - Study the plastid genome transmission in the family at the genus level.
  • 57. Thanks!

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