Rice production in the cone of South America – what can we learn for GRiSP-Asia?
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Rice production in the cone of South America – what can we learn for GRiSP-Asia?

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  • 1. Rice production in the cone of South America – what can we learn for GRiSP-Asia? Bas Bouman, Program leader Sustainable Rice production Systems Head, Crop and Environmental Sciences Division International Rice research Institute, Philippines
  • 2. ContentGeneral and brief overview rice in South AmericaThe Agronomy RevolutionA few words about the rice industryExtension modelsReflections for GRiSP-Asia
  • 3. Latin-America Rice:26 Million t/y6.5 Million ha(4% of global)UruguayNE Argentina- Entre Rios- CorrientesSouth Brazil- Rio Grande do Sul
  • 4. Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul [hide]Climate data for Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord 39 36.5 37.4 35.1 31.6 29.4 31.8 33 35.6 34.4 39.2 39.6 39.6high °CAverage 27 26 26 22 19 17 16 18 19 21 24 26 21.5high °C Daily 23 22 21 18 14 13 12 13 14 17 19 21 17.5mean °CAverage 19 18 17 14 10 9 8 9 10 13 15 17 13.5 low °CRecord 10 9.8 5 2.7 1.2 −3 −2.7 −1 0.2 2.6 6 7.9 −3low °CPrecipita 118 145 120 100 95 118 132 123 135 112 86 95 1,379tion mm(inches)% humid 77.4 79.9 80.5 82.3 83.6 84 84.9 83.2 81.8 79.5 76 75.5 80.7 ityprecipita tion 11.7 11.5 10.3 8.9 9.2 10.5 11.4 9.7 10.8 10.6 10 9.5 124.1 daysSunshin 251.2 204.7 213 189.5 177.7 146.2 149.9 160.8 199.6 234.5 265.9 196.2 2,389.2e hours Source: Federal University of Pelotas - UFPel.[17]
  • 5. Some rice sector characteristicsUruguay: 180,000 ha; 550-600 growers; all exportArgentina: 250,000 ha; all exportRio Grande do Sul: 1,100,000 ha; 18,500 growersLarge farms, average Uruguay 300 ha; small = 25 hain Argentina and Brasil; large is > 1000 haAll irrigated lowlandHigh yields: 6.5- 8 t/ha; yield potentials 12-13 t/ha?Large machines, airplanesRice (1-2 year) - pasture (3-4 year) rotations
  • 6. Kill pasture with glyphosate Ploughing, harrowingBunds along contour lines ScrapingSummer plus winter fallow
  • 7. Spring dry seeding first rice crop Picture: Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR Picture: Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR120-140 d durationSeed density 100-170 kg/ha50-70 kg N/ha100% area under herbicide5% area under insecticide80-100% area under fungicide100% area under irrigation
  • 8. Picture: Neil Palmer, CIAT, 2012
  • 9. Winter fallow, or winter rye Late winter/early spring: herbicides, maybe scraping and bund reshaping Second year rice, no till (65%)
  • 10. Year 3-6. Pasture and cattle grazing Picture: Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR
  • 11. The “Agronomy Revolution”9000 Paddy yield (kg/ha)8000 Rio Grande del Sur7000 Uruguay6000 Argentina5000 Colombia4000 Chile3000 Paraguay2000 2002 2000 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR, 2012
  • 12. Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil8000 Kg/ha7500  Extension focused on integrated and7000 efficient management6500  Focus on a few6000 fundamental points5500  New Clearfield5000 varieties with similar4500 yield potential4000 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… Source: IRGA statistics Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR, 2012
  • 13. Rice varieties in Rio Grande do Sul, 2011-12 50 45 a) Maturity group b) CLEARFIELD cultivars 70 50 40 Área cultivada (%) Área cultivada (%) 60 54,2 50 63,2 40Cultivated area (%) 45,8 35 40 30 30 20 30 20 27,3 10 9,6 10 0 0 25 CL ly . e m nv Lat E ar diu Co 20 Me 15 10 5 0 CL i s s L L 24 17 vJ L 409 ar m rid 22C A-C 144 Tai lim agr êb– A4 A4 elo Hyb GA INT AO A4 S7 Ep IRG IRG uer o inu -IR ass IRG BR INI ITA SQ SS BR El P PU BR BR Sérgio Iraçu Gindri Lopes, IRGA, 2012 Cultivars
  • 14. Before Clearfield: 4 t/ha After Clearfield: 8 t/ha Only 50-70% use of certified/clean seed Sérgio Iraçu Gindri Lopes, IRGA, 2012
  • 15. Rice yield (t/ha), Rio Grande do Sul Valmir Gaedke Menezes, IRGA, 2012
  • 16. Valmir Gaedke Menezes, IRGA, 2012
  • 17. Valmir Gaedke Menezes, IRGA, 2012
  • 18. Shallow poorly-drained soils: too wet after winter tocultivate earlySummer tillage (fallow) or winter rye grass followed byminimum/zero till sowing early spring (60-65% in Uruguay;70% in RGdS Brasil)3 times applicationof herbicides (glyphosate) Picture: Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR
  • 19. Uruguay Varieties: 5-7% Clearfied) Yield100% 9.090% 8.580% 8.070% 7.560% 7.050% 6.540% 6.030% 5.520% 5.010% 4.5 0% 4.0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 El Paso 144 Tacuarí Olimar Otras Use of certified/clean seed every year Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR, 2012
  • 20. Sowing date Fertilization Seed density Pest, disease management Weed control Water managementJust “everything a bit better”… Luciano Carmona, CIAT-FLAR, 2012
  • 21. Rice industry - UruguayInstituto National de Investigacion Agropecuaria(INIA) – Research500-600 farmers organized in Asociacion deCultivadores de Arroz (ACA)Millers organized in Gremial de MolinerosArroceros (GMA): SAMAN: 47% Casarone: 14% Coopar: 14% Glencore: 11%75% of area under rice price agreement system
  • 22. Drying, milling, parboiling, storage, packing; processing (oil)
  • 23. Millers are also the exporters
  • 24. Need for consistent and high quality;same variety Raul Uraga Berrutti, SAMAN, 2012
  • 25. Raul Uraga Berrutti, SAMAN, 2012
  • 26. Raul Uraga Berrutti, SAMAN, 2012
  • 27. Value-adding; close supply-chain actors; millers/exporters „driving‟ quality process Postharvest management Asia Quality, Water, Labor Laser leveling Min Combine transfer Physical loss: 12-25%Market info Loss at market: up to 50% Farmers don‟t value add Drying system transfer Farmers‟ seeds Quality tools Rice mill improvement Super bags
  • 28. Extension systems1. Uruguay: no government extension since early 1990s – farmers and millers have agronomists who interact with INIA2. Argentina (Corrientes): INTA has a network of extensionists – doesn‟t work because too few and too general (all crops)3. Brazil (RGdS): IRGA has a well functioning network of extensionists; EMBRAPA?RiceTec has after sale assistance (field days, farmer groups)
  • 29. Alvaro Schwanke, RiceTec, 2012
  • 30. Alvaro Schwanke, RiceTec, 2012
  • 31. Valmir Gaedke Menezes, IRGA, 2012
  • 32. Valmir Gaedke Menezes, IRGA, 2012
  • 33. RiceCheck is a farmer participatory program which benchmarks farmer crops to identify practices (checks) for lifting yields and profitsRice yield Australia (t/ha) RiceCheck John Lacy, 2012
  • 34. John Lacy, 2012
  • 35. FLAR Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR
  • 36. Any lessons for GRiSP-Asia?1. Agronomy Revolution: • Importance of rotations • Simple agronomy „checks‟ (get things right); A few key checks: variety (Clearfield in Brazil), certified seed (Uruguay), timely sowing <= zero-tillage machine drilling • No prescriptive technology push • Intensive researcher-agronomist-farmer interaction; farmer learning groups: measure, monitor, record, analyze
  • 37. 2. Poor drainage-rainfall-tillage => timely establishment => DSR versus mechanized transplanting => target domain DSR
  • 38. 3. DSR => risk weeds and weedy rice • Herbicide tolerant varieties => resistance development => stewardship need • Clean (certified) seeds (Uruguay), crop rotation, establishment rotation 2010: 2 Clearfield varieties in Malaysia Soon to appear in Vietnam
  • 39. 4. Rice sector well developed • Short value chain, highly value driven (export), millers important „drivers‟ • Market demand: only few varieties, some „old‟ => “consistency” important quality characteristic
  • 40. Asia is different: poverty and staple food of the poor => Keep price of rice low“Supermarket revolution”:High price is driver forquality and efficiency=> Opportunities foradding value in Asia?
  • 41. Mekong Delta Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar?
  • 42. “Middle Class” in Developing Countries Could Reach 730 Million Households By 2020, Up 104% From 2010 Levels 20% of households in these countries are middle class. By 2020, this could increase to 36% and the impact on food consumption will be large Developing countries with fastest growing “middle class” China 223 India 112 Brazil 12 Indonesia 11 Russia 9 Egypt 6 Mexico 5 Thailand 5 Turkey 4 Vietnam 3 Colombia 3 2010 levels Proj gains by 2020 Philippines 3 South Korea 2 Malyasia 2 Taiwan 1 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375“Middle class”: 20,000$ annual PPP Households with real PPP incomes greater than $20,000 (in millions)Source: Global Insight’s Global Consumer Markets data as analyzed by FAS/OGACourtesy: Michael J. Dwyer, Director of Global Policy Analysis, Office of Global AnalysisForeign Agricultural Service/USDA
  • 43. 5. Topics for collaboration:1. The threat of weedy rice => stewardship guidelines2. Sustainable production: carbon, water footprint3. Sustainable rotations => experimental platforms4. Yield gap analysis => simulation modeling5. Best Management Practices => joint framework for development and extension
  • 44. Gracias por su atención(Thanks for your attention) Picture: Neil Palmer, CIAT, 2012
  • 45. Recent development: on-farm reservoirs, and rotate cropsaround the water (with summer fallows since land isplenty). All private investments!Still only 5% of (rain) water resources used, 95% in rice Picture: Gonzalo Zorilla, FLAR
  • 46. Brazil, RGdS2011 Argentina, Corrientes 2008 Uruguay, 2011 IRRI and partners; web-based
  • 47. Raul Uraga Berrutti, SAMAN, 2012