Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: A Commons Perspective

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Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: A Commons Perspective

  1. 1. Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: A Commons Perspective Chikelu Mba, PhD Agricultural Officer (Plant Genetic Resources Use) Plant Production and Protection Division  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Plant Production and a world without hunger for Protection Division
  2. 2. Outline • Food security‐related global development  issues and drivers i dd i • PGRFA – pivotal role in food security – as global commonwealth as global commonwealth – International efforts at optimizing the benefits • Perspectives: towards a road map for a  reinvigorated global PGRFA environment Plant Production and Protection Division
  3. 3. Global Development Issues Millennium Development Goals Plant Production and Protection Division
  4. 4. Profiling Food (In)Security & Challenges • Wake up call in the recent food  Production price increases price increases Commodity (MT) Sugar cane 1627450797 Maize 788112128 • 1 billion people go hungry today Rice, paddy 657413530 Wheat h 611101664 • Uncertainties exacerbated by  Potatoes 323543199 climate change and variations Vegetables fresh 244719080 Cassava 224131501 Soybeans 219545479 • At current rates, population by  Tomatoes 133259909 2050 estimated at 9 billion Bananas 89099503 Onions, Onions dry 70039038 • Efforts to breed better resilient  Apples 66091848 crops confounded by narrow  Grapes 65971144 Rapeseed 51353701 genetic base of crops and breeding  genetic base of crops and breeding Groundnuts 37816142 materials Garlic 15922500 Plant Production and Protection Division
  5. 5. Plant Genetic Resources as global  commonwealth:  lth some examples of international accords  Plant Production and Protection Division
  6. 6. Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 Aimed at conservation  Aimed at conservation and  sustainable use of  biological diversity, fair  biological diversity fair and equitable sharing  of the benefits arising  out of their use,  including access ‐‐‐‐‐‐ www.cbd.int Plant Production and Protection Division
  7. 7. Was CBD enough? • Aim was to promote the exchange of PGRFA but   practical effect has been a reduction practical effect has been a reduction • The CBD is based on the concept of national  sovereignty over PGRFA and the right of each  sovereignty over PGRFA and the right of each country to set its own terms of access to those  resources  resources • In practice, the CBD has been implemented on a  bilateral basis, with access to PGRFA subject to the  bilateral basis with access to PGRFA subject to the negotiation of bilateral agreements for access and  benefit‐sharing.    Plant Production and Protection Division
  8. 8. Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and  Sustainable Use of PGRFA  (1996 FAO) ( ) ensure the conservation of plant genetic resources for  food and agriculture as the basis of food security,  promote sustainable use of plant genetic resources to  foster development and reduce hunger and poverty,  promote the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits  h f i d i bl h i f h b fi arising from the use of plant genetic resources,  assist countries and institutions to identify priorities  for action,  strengthen existing programmes and enhance  institutional capacity.                                                                   institutional capacity. www.globalplanofaction.org Plant Production and Protection Division
  9. 9. The International Treaty on  Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, 2001 g , •The conservation and  sustainable use of   plant genetic  bl f l resources for food and  agriculture •The fair and equitable sharing of  benefits derived from their use,  benefits derived from their use, in harmony with the Convention  on Biological Diversity, for  sustainable agriculture and food  i bl i l df d security www.planttreaty.org Plant Production and Protection Division
  10. 10. Plant Genetic Resources for Food & Agriculture --- PGRFA ‘Any material of plant origin,  including reproductive and  vegetative propagating material,  g p p g g , containing functional units of  heredity of plant origin of actual or  heredity of plant origin of actual or potential value for food and  agriculture’. Plant Production and Protection Division
  11. 11. Global Crop Diversity Trust In line with the IT‐PGRFA and the GPA the IT PGRFA GPA, Trust aims to advance an efficient and sustainable global system of ex situ conservation by promoting the rescue, understanding, understanding use and long‐term long term conservation of valuable plant genetic resources. resources “Together with the air we breathe and the water we drink, crop diversity is one of the most fundamentally important resources for human life is one of the most fundamentally important resources for human life on earth.” http://www.croptrust.org/main/ Plant Production and Protection Division
  12. 12. FAO’s central role in PGRFA • Policy and technical support as a global forum for Policy and technical support as a global forum for  PGRFA and related aspects  • Secretariat for IT PGRFA Secretariat for IT‐PGRFA • Hosts the Global Crop Diversity Trust • Implementation of the Global Plan of Action • PGR and Seed Information and Initiatives PGR and Seed Information and Initiatives  • Advocacy, awareness and partnerships Plant Production and Protection Division
  13. 13. Publication of Reports on Global Status of PGRFA 2009 1996 Plant Production and Protection Division
  14. 14. Publication of Reports on Global Status of PGRFA Contents of SOW‐2 http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/core-themes/theme/seeds-pgr/sow/en/ Plant Production and Protection Division
  15. 15. The PGRFA Continuum Interventions • Collections Utilization • Seed Sectors • In-Situ • Formal • Ex-Situ • Crop Improvement • Informal • Breeding Conservation • Pre-breeding Delivery Requisite interventions q •Policy •Capacity building Interventions •Information dissemination •Advocacy •Emergency Plant Production and Protection Division
  16. 16. The PGRFA Continuum • Collections Utilization • Seed Sectors • In-Situ • Formal • Ex-Situ • Informal • Crop Improvement p p • Breeding Conservation • Pre-breeding Delivery Plant Production and Protection Division
  17. 17. The PGRFA Continuum Not always continuous Indeed broken often continuous. Indeed, • Collection Utilization • Seed Sectors s • Formal • In-Situ • Crop • Informal • Ex-Situ Improvement Conservation • Breeding Delivery • P b di Pre-breeding Plant Production and Protection Division
  18. 18. Towards the transitioning from a modular to seamless PGRFA continuum • Frame dialogue for inclusive national PGRFA strategies – Consultations for strategizing the institutionalization of farmer perspectives – Policy interventions  • Targeted information dissemination g – Scientific community  – Policy makers – Mass media • Capacity building – TCP vehicle • Synergies – ITPGR – Global Crop Diversity Trust – CGIAR Plant Production and Protection Division
  19. 19. Grand Challenges  • Decades‐long neglect of agricultural R&D  (including the development of new crop  (including the development of new crop varieties) • Poor policy environment • Narrow genetic base of crop germplasm • Dwindling or stagnant human and material Dwindling or stagnant human and material  resources for germplasm enhancement Plant Production and Protection Division
  20. 20. Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building -- GIPB Plant Production and Protection Division
  21. 21. Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building -- GIPB Key Achievements of GIPB C h i B i Pl f •Comprehensive Business Plan for  global improvement in capacity in  plant breeding systems •Development of a web‐based one‐ stop Knowledge Resource Centre  now broadly recognized as an  b dl d unequalled global resource for plant  g breeding •Development of a range of policy‐ related materials and organization of  events  Plant Production and Protection Division
  22. 22. Vistas: GIPB roadmap • Leverage the success of the GIPB to foster coalition for  addressing shortcomings of the PGRFA continuum addressing shortcomings of the PGRFA continuum • Deploy, exploit, scale‐up results of studies: – d fi i defining and assessing plant breeding capacity d i l b di i – assessing policy and program options to improve the capacity  of plant breeding and delivery systems of plant breeding and delivery systems • Foster initiatives for institutionalization of national  plant breeding strategies plant breeding strategies • Consult, dialogue, strategize, seize opportunities Plant Production and Protection Division
  23. 23. Vistas: GIPB roadmap Largest plant breeding Tools to revolutionize community on the web public sector plant breeding ---- but not without the minister! Plant Production and Protection Division
  24. 24. Parting Shot(s) Be a part of the Community! •Advance the cause of PGRFA use SMTA influence policy •Advance the cause of PGRFA, use SMTA, influence policy •Capacity building, information, community ‐ peers, mentors oVisit the GIPB websites regularly oJoin the PB‐Forum ‐‐‐‐ and participate! oSubscribe to the Plant Breeding Newsletter oQuite importantly, be listed in the Plant Breeder Directory •Register with AGORA Plant Production and Protection Division
  25. 25. Acknowledgements • Colleagues at FAO especially the Seeds and Colleagues at FAO, especially the Seeds and  Plant Genetic Resources Team of AGP • CIAT Management for the invitation • You for being a great audience You for being a great audience Plant Production and Protection Division

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