Land tenure, access and social diversity in Latin America

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This research seminar will introduce our collaborative land and forest tenure research initiative. Recent tenure reforms across globe are changing the ways people govern forests, agroforestry and small farms. Overall these reforms have recognized collective and individual rights of indigenous peoples and women. However, on-the-ground story is different and often complex for the marginalized groups.
Two empirical pilot studies from Bolivia and Colombia will address the key research question: how land tenure arrangements impact socially diverse groups like indigenous people and women (quinoa) smallholder communities in Altiplano region of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia and agro-forestry (coffee)small farms in Colombia.
What’s new research? You might be interested in this simplified version of social science research methods and concise conceptual analysis of land tenure institutional arrangements for socially diverse smallholders. The findings of this presentation will generate evidence-based discussion around governance of land tenure policy dynamics and its (un)intentional influence on individual (men and women) tenure rights, and access to resources.

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  • Chenopodium pallidicaule La Cañihua Nombre Científico : Chenopodium pallidicaule. Nombres Comunes:kañiwa, kañawa, kañahua, kañagua, Kañagua, quitacañigua, ayara, cuchiquinua
  • Land tenure, access and social diversity in Latin America

    1. 1. Land tenure, access and social diversity in Purabi Bose Decision and Policy Analysis (DAPA) Research Email: p.bose@cgiar.org Cali, Colombia 19 August 2014 Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change Latin America
    2. 2. Presentation outline Part I. Overall objectives of Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) integrating Gender Part II. Tenure Research initiatives Latin America Part III. Initiating global comparative case-studies in South Asia, East Africa and Latin America Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    3. 3. Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change PART ONE Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) Gender Partners: CIFOR, ICRAF, Bioversity, CIAT, CIRAD, CATIE
    4. 4. Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) Gender Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change Innovative science and methods Mentoring and empowerment
    5. 5. i. Communicating Science  An example: CIAT’s International Photo with Story Competition blog received high # of hits.  41 photos: people’s point of view in e-book  A technical panel on Land Tenure and Gender at IUFRO World Forest Congress, October 2014 Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    6. 6. ii. Capacity Building and Mentoring  An illustration: Gender workshop in Latin America, 2013 identified research priorities  Latin America writeshop in Cali, 2014  Integrating diversity in research cycle for CIAT staff and partners in Africa, 2014  Mentoring young researchers and interns Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    7. 7. iii. Policy and Partnership  For instance: we’ve established network of people doing forests-agriculture interface work  Share our research findings to recommend COP20 agenda on gender, forests and climate  Interdisciplinary partnerships: Dejusticia- Human Rights; ONAMIAP, RRI- think tanks; WUR, UoC-academicians; Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change SWDF- civil societies
    8. 8. iv. Participatory Action Research  Key initiatives: tenure, access & social diversity I. Agroforestry, food security and climate change in rural India II. Forest governance & multi-stakeholder in Uganda, Kenya III.Land tenure reforms in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    9. 9. PART TWO: Latin American Research Initiatives Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    10. 10. Governance of Forest Tenure  Classification of FORESTS - who defines?  Property rights- why, for whom and why?  Access, withdrawal, management, exclusion, and alienation  Governance: tenure types, overlapping institutions, rules, policies, and stakeholders Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    11. 11. i. Overview of Tenure in LA Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change Forest tenure: collective Complex, but comparatively higher secured indigenous territories and community forest rights Small farms: individual social disparity; indigenous and Afro-American communities and women
    12. 12. Forest Tenure: Collective Proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 1.4 calls for (by 2030) men and women to have equal rights, it does not recognize community land rights. Forests, pastures, and bodies of water which rural households rely on for their livelihoods Connecting community land rights to SDGs: before final agreement at U.N. Summit meeting in Sept 2015. Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    13. 13. Forest Tenure: Collective Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change 2002: Forest Tenure in Bolivia and Colombia Government administered Designated for IPs and local communities Owned by IPs and local communities Owned by individuals and firms 68.7 2.7 27.9 0.8 59.8 0 40.2 0 Bolivia Colombia Reference: Stevens et al 2014 Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change
    14. 14. Land Tenure and Access in Latin America  Tenure reforms Bolivia and Colombia  Conceptual framework: micro-politics  Case studies- lake Titicaca and coffee region  Preliminary findings  Analysis – social and institutional diversity Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    15. 15. Small Farms Tenure: Individual Individual tenure rights – recognizing women’s land title Land Title – formal (legalization) and informal (customary) Ownership and access: men, women and youths How and why land title formalization- who benefits? Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    16. 16. Bolivia: Land Tenure Reform Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    17. 17. Colombia: Land Tenure Reform Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    18. 18. ii. Micro-Politics Framework Customary, legal and extra-legal Social Diversity Institutional Diversity Reference: Bose, P. 2012 Forest Rights http://edepot.wur.nl/212101 Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    19. 19. iii. Case studies – Bolivia and Colombia  Two analytical studies – independent (2013)  Key objective – individual rights to land and agro-forests coffee and Kañiwa/quinoa  Methods: Participatory action research, field observations, and scientific and grey literature Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    20. 20. Individual land tenure For this presentation: focus on individual tenure  Colombia: smallholder agro-forestry (coffee farms - men)  Bolivia: marginalized small-farms hardy food crops (kañiwa quinoa farms- women) Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    21. 21. Altiplano Lake Titicaca, Bolivia Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    22. 22. iv. Preliminary Findings Bolivian case study (in Altiplano region) Small-farms – informal arrangements Climate variability affects socio-economically marginalized men and women (un)intended impact of value-chains of Kaniwa on IP women Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    23. 23. iv. Preliminary Findings Colombian case study (in Quindia region)  Informal tenure claims  Tree compositions decision affected the land-use management by men/ women  Formalization of the land title: ambiguity on joint titling at household level. Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    24. 24. v. Analysis: Social Diversity Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change e.g. in Bolivia  Vulnerability not necessarily gendered, but depends on ethnic diversity  Increase global demand impact local farming practice of women (indirectly food security)  Access matters, but not titling
    25. 25. v. Analysis: Social Diversity Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change e.g. in Colombia  Crop diversification (security net) = women only with secured land title  Progressive reform, but joint titling a concern at local level compared to individual title  Land ownership defines indirectly (market/ capital) access and usufruct rights for women
    26. 26. v. Analysis: Institutional Diversity e.g. Bolivia. Kaniwa influenced by global demand Informal rules continues to dominate the land tenure arrangements of IPs (extra-legal) e.g. Colombia. Coffee agroforestry’s local market Formalizing land title challenge traditional gender equity- but, titling is not an end in itself. Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    27. 27. PART THREE: Global Comparative Tenure Studies Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change
    28. 28. Global Social Diversity Tenure and Access  Latin America- access to resources, individual small farm title, and collective forest rights  East Africa- customary institutions, forests-agriculture Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change interface dynamics  South Asia- forest tenure and food security
    29. 29. Open Research Dialogue Since 1 9 6 7 / Science to cultivate change Thank you!

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