Helping Farmers Help Themselves

  CIAT’s contribution to cassava
       production in Asia


         Reinhardt Howeler
 ...
Brief history of CIAT’ involvement with cassava in Asia

Training
1975-1979   Specialized long-term training of 16 Asian r...
CIAT-Office
1983-present CIAT Cassava Office for Asia in Bangkok, Thailand

Working Style
Senior staff work in close colla...
Cassava Improvement in Asia
• Asia has relatively few native land races of cassava, and breeding
  during the 1970s was th...
Table 3. Total area under cassava and estimated area under CIAT-related varieties in various
         countries in Asia in...
Cassava Agronomy
• A CIAT agronomist has been stationed in Asia since
  1986; a second agronomist joined in 2005

• In col...
30

       Cassava root yield (t/ha)   25

                                   20

                                   15

 ...
Soil   Productivity Decline
       due to
Nutrient Depletion
Erosion
In Thailand cassava is generally grown by smallholder farmers on
              light textured soils with gentle slopes
In Vietnam cassava is often grown on rather steep slopes
27 years of continuous cropping without K application (in front)
resulted in very poor growth and low yields in Khon Kaen,...
N1P1K1 tops removed
                                          N1P0K1 tops removed
                                        ...
During heavy rain storms a lot of runoff water
accumulates in natural drainage ways………
……which can break the contour ridges …….
….and cause serious
   gully erosion
Research in Thailand has
shown that soil losses by
  erosion can be greatly
reduced by application of
  chemical fertilize...
….or planting contour
 hedgerows of vetiver grass,
    which, after ten years,
  resulted in natural terrace
  formation w...
Most soil erosion control practices have
certain advantages and disadvantages



• Thus……trade-offs need to be made

• Thi...
These practices are also highly site-specific,
depending on soil and climate as well as the
socio-economic situation of fa...
Nippon Foundation Project

Objectives:    to enhance the sustainability of cassava-based
               cropping systems i...
Adopt and disseminate                                  Feed back to research

                                 Problem Dia...
Partners
Nippon Foundation in Japan – funding agency
CIAT Cassava Program for Asia-project implementation
                ...
Farmers become aware of the

  seriousness of soil erosion

when they can actually see the

soil losses in their own fields
Farmers can see in their own

 FPR trials that some simple

practices can markedly reduce

     runoff and erosion
Field day at time of harvest




Farmers, researchers and extension workers evaluate the
•                                                                      2 27
                                              ...
Number of FPR trials conducted in the 2d phase of the Nippon
      Foundation Project in China, Thailand and Vietnam.

Cou...
Development of Farmer Participatory Extension
             (FPE) Approaches

-Cross-visits
-Field days at time of harvest
...
Thailand
Cassava Development Villages


In Thailand, 21 Cassava Development Villages have been set up with the objective to

 empow...
Cassava farmers in Thailand have planted a total of about 150 km of
 vetiver grass hedgerows to control erosion in their c...
Vietnam
Thong Nhat commune in
  North Vietnam in 1998


Serious erosion problems and
low yields of cassava and tea
Thong Nhat commune in North Vietnam in 2000
A farmer proudly shows off his “new cassava” field
In Van Yen district of Yen Bai province in north Vietnam farmers
have planted 500 km of double row hedgerows of Tephrosia ...
Table 1. Extent of adoption of new technologies by farmers participating or not directly
         participating in the Nip...
30                Thailand                           Vietnam


                            25
     Cassava yield (t/ha)


...
30
                                                                                       India
Cassava root yield (t/ha)
...
Table 4. Estimated increase in gross income of cassava farming households (hh) in various
         countries in Asia as a ...
These increases in yields are due to the widespread
adoption of new high-yielding varieties and
improved agronomic practic...
……but,
there are some dark clouds on the horizon….

 This year, for the first time, there are some serious
   disease and ...
MEcu 72



   Spiraling whitefly
(Aleurodiscus dispersus)



                           Excellent resistance of MEcu 72
  ...
Cassava mealy bug         Cassava mealybug

    (Ferrisia virgata)?    (Phenacoccus manihoti)?




 Occurs mainly on plant...
This new mealy bug species has now spread to cassava
         fields in 25 provinces of Thailand
We also see a very unusual growth, which may be due to
the mealy bug, to CBB or to a phytoplasm such as witches
          ...
These phytoplasm-like symptoms are widespread in
southern Vietnam and in Thailand in 2009 and may
 seriously affect yields...
……..So

Is this the future of

   our children?
….or can we help farmers improve their livelihood

        AND protect the environment?..
Our Future!!!
Helping Farmers Help Themselves: CIAT’s contribution to cassava production in Asia
Helping Farmers Help Themselves: CIAT’s contribution to cassava production in Asia
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Helping Farmers Help Themselves: CIAT’s contribution to cassava production in Asia

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Presentation by Reinhardt Howeler for the CIAT KSW 2009

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  • Helping Farmers Help Themselves: CIAT’s contribution to cassava production in Asia

    1. 1. Helping Farmers Help Themselves CIAT’s contribution to cassava production in Asia Reinhardt Howeler May 2009
    2. 2. Brief history of CIAT’ involvement with cassava in Asia Training 1975-1979 Specialized long-term training of 16 Asian researchers at CIAT 1980-2003 Specialized shorter-term training of 57 Asian researchers at CIAT 6 Cassava production training course at CIAT; 18 participants 7 Cassava production training course in the Philip.: 25 participants 8 Cassava production training course at CIAT; 24 participants 9 Cassava production training course at CIAT; 22 participants 2008 Cassava production training course in Thailand; 59 participants Outposted CIAT-staff 1977-1979 Romeo Obordo Regional Coordinator, stationed in the Philippines 1983-1998 Kazuo Kawano Regional Coordinator, stationed in Thailand 1986-2009 Reinhardt Howeler Cassava Agronomist, stationed in Thailand 2005-present Tin Maung Aye Cassava Agronomist, stationed in Laos; from 2009 stationed in Thailand
    3. 3. CIAT-Office 1983-present CIAT Cassava Office for Asia in Bangkok, Thailand Working Style Senior staff work in close collaboration with researchers and extensionists in national cassava programs in Asia, mainly in Thailand, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and India; more recently in East Timor, Laos and Cambodia Funding 1983-1998 Breeder: Core funding 1986-1993 Agronomist: Restricted core from Japanese government 1994-2009 Agronomists: Special Project funding from the Nippon Foundation in Japan and from ACIAR in Australia
    4. 4. Cassava Improvement in Asia • Asia has relatively few native land races of cassava, and breeding during the 1970s was therefore not very successful • From 1983 to the present nearly half a million hybrid F1 seeds have been introduced from CIAT; this has greatly broadened the genetic base • Recently, the CIAT cassava core collection of over 600 accessions has been transferred in tissue culture to Thailand • The working together of a CIAT cassava breeder with breeders in various national programs resulted in the release of about 52 new varieties of high yield and high starch content • Nearly two million ha, or about 50% of the cassava area in Asia, are now planted with these CIAT-related varieties • Average cassava yields in Asia increased from 12.7 t/ha in 1984 to 18.7 t/ha in 2007 as a result of the use of higher yielding varieties and adoption of improved agronomic practices • The increase in gross income of cassava farmers in Asia as a result of higher yields in 2007 as compared to 1984 is estimated at 900 million US dollars annually
    5. 5. Table 3. Total area under cassava and estimated area under CIAT-related varieties in various countries in Asia in 2006/07 Area under cassava (ha) Area under CIAT related varieties - ———————— —————————————— 1) Country FAO ha (%) Cambodia 96,000 76,800 80 China 268,850 80,655 30 India 242,000 0 0 Indonesia 1,206,904 229,311 19 Malaysia 41,000 100 5 Philippines 210,000 12,600 6 Thailand 1,152,199 1,129,155 98 Vietnam 560,000 392,000 70 Myanmar 16,500 3,300 20 Laos 17,000 1,700 10 Others 34,725 3,170 10 Total 3,845,178 1,932,791 50 FAOSTAT, Aug 2008; data for 2007.
    6. 6. Cassava Agronomy • A CIAT agronomist has been stationed in Asia since 1986; a second agronomist joined in 2005 • In collaboration with national scientists we have conducted research on various aspects of cultural practices, e.g. soil fertility maintenance and erosion control, cassava leaf production, minimum tillage, etc. as well as widespread testing of new varieties • Since 1994 the emphasis has changed from conducting research to achieving adoption and impact using a farmer participatory research (FPR) approach, initially mainly in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Indonesia and more recently in East Timor, Laos and Cambodia
    7. 7. 30 Cassava root yield (t/ha) 25 20 15 10 = Sattahip = Huaipong 5 = Korat 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Crop year Figure 2. Decline in fresh root yields due to continuous cultivation without fertilizers in three soil series in Thailand. Source: Sittibusaya, 1993; Howeler, 1995.
    8. 8. Soil Productivity Decline due to Nutrient Depletion Erosion
    9. 9. In Thailand cassava is generally grown by smallholder farmers on light textured soils with gentle slopes
    10. 10. In Vietnam cassava is often grown on rather steep slopes
    11. 11. 27 years of continuous cropping without K application (in front) resulted in very poor growth and low yields in Khon Kaen, Thailand; in the back with complete NPK application
    12. 12. N1P1K1 tops removed N1P0K1 tops removed N1P1K0 tops removed 35 N0P0K0 tops removed 30 Cassava root yield (t/ha) 25 20 15 10 5 0 98 8 81 1 78 8 79 9 84 4 85 5 86 6 87 7 92 2 93 3 94 4 95 5 96 6 80 0 83 3 89 9 77 7 88 8 90 0 82 2 91 1 97 7 9 /9 /8 /8 /9 /7 /7 /8 /8 /8 /9 /9 /9 /9 /8 /8 /8 /9 /7 /8 /9 /8 /9 /9 76 Response to annual applications of various combinations of N, P and K of cassava grown in Khon Kaen, Thailand for 23 consecutive years
    13. 13. During heavy rain storms a lot of runoff water accumulates in natural drainage ways………
    14. 14. ……which can break the contour ridges …….
    15. 15. ….and cause serious gully erosion
    16. 16. Research in Thailand has shown that soil losses by erosion can be greatly reduced by application of chemical fertilizers….
    17. 17. ….or planting contour hedgerows of vetiver grass, which, after ten years, resulted in natural terrace formation with one meter high terrace risers in Phu Tho province of north Vietnam
    18. 18. Most soil erosion control practices have certain advantages and disadvantages • Thus……trade-offs need to be made • This can only be decided by the farmers themselves
    19. 19. These practices are also highly site-specific, depending on soil and climate as well as the socio-economic situation of farmers in each location • Thus……the most suitable practices will have to be determined in each location…… • ……..and with full participation of the farmers
    20. 20. Nippon Foundation Project Objectives: to enhance the sustainability of cassava-based cropping systems in Asia by the widespread adoption of soil conserving practices. Strategy: to involve farmers directly in the development and dissemination of location-specific, most suitable and most effective soil conserving practices. Target: to benefit at least 8000 farmers
    21. 21. Adopt and disseminate Feed back to research Problem Diagnosis with farmers Farmers adapt new Researchers show many practice and scale-up to technology options in FPR production field demonstration plots Farmer Participation Farmers retest and and Decision Making Farmers select reselect best options Farmers test options Farmers evaluate and in FPR trials on select most suitable their own fields options/practices Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) approach
    22. 22. Partners Nippon Foundation in Japan – funding agency CIAT Cassava Program for Asia-project implementation in collaboration with: 1. Research and extension organizations in Thailand -Department of Agriculture (DOA) -Department of Agricultural Extension (DOAE) -Land Development Department (LDD) -Kasetsart University (KU) -The Thai Tapioca Development Institute(TTDI) 2. Research and extension organizations in Vietnam -Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry (TNUAF) -National Institute for Soils and Fertilizers (NISF) -Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute (VASI) -Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF) -Institute of Agricultural Sciences of South Vietnam (IAS) -Tu Duc University of Agric. and Forestry (TDUAF) 3. Research and extension organizations in China -Chinese Academy for Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) -Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute (GSCRI) -Honghe Animal Husbandry Station of Yunnan
    23. 23. Farmers become aware of the seriousness of soil erosion when they can actually see the soil losses in their own fields
    24. 24. Farmers can see in their own FPR trials that some simple practices can markedly reduce runoff and erosion
    25. 25. Field day at time of harvest Farmers, researchers and extension workers evaluate the
    26. 26. • 2 27 3 28 26 22 18 1 19 • 25 11 20 22 32 2 21 3 31 2223 2 171 12 2 24 6 16 15 12 5 2 11 21 9 2 72 2 30 2 10 1 324 8 2 29 2 22 • 13 1422 2 1 2 2 15 116 17 19 1 1 18 12 20 2 • 21 23 2 22 36 2 2 1 2 9 7 6 4 13 6 24 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 14 • 6 1 12 56 6 1 10 6 11 6 57 8 54 6 7 23 3 2 48 9 26 • 12 2 25 29 2 9 10 2 11 27 28 1 12 14 17 1 • 1 1 1 32 13 1 1 15 16 33 3 3 18 • 21 1 11 19 20 3 22 22 31 23 22 24 2 2 25 26 2822 29 2 2 27 30 • 32 • 31 30 33 34 Figure 1. Location of FPR pilot sites in China, Thailand and Vietnam in the Nippon Foundation cassava project in 2003.
    27. 27. Number of FPR trials conducted in the 2d phase of the Nippon Foundation Project in China, Thailand and Vietnam. Country Type of FPR trial 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total China Varieties 9 9 20 69 20 127 Erosion control 3 5 8 17 - 33 Fertilization - - - 4 - 4 Intercropping - - - 9 - 9 Pig feeding - - - 59 - 59 12 14 28 158 20 232 Thailand Varieties 11 16 16 19 25 87 Erosion control 14 10 6 - 11 41 Chemical fertilizers 16 6 23 17 17 79 Chem.+org fertilizers - - 10 11 11 32 Green manures - - 13 11 15 39 Weed control - - 17 5 10 32 Plant spacing - - 3 - 2 5 Intercropping - - 16 7 - 23 41 32 104 70 91 338 Vietnam Varieties 12 31 36 47 35 161 Erosion control 16 28 29 30 23 126 Fertilization 1 23 36 24 24 108 Intercropping - 14 32 31 26 103 Weed control - 3 - - 3 6 Plant spacing - 1 7 19 8 35 Leaf production - - 2 2 1 5 Pig feeding - - 11 16 13 40 29 100 153 169 133 584 Total 82 146 285 397 244 1,154
    28. 28. Development of Farmer Participatory Extension (FPE) Approaches -Cross-visits -Field days at time of harvest -Large-scale field days -Setting up “Cassava Development Villages” -Training local “FPR teams” -Pamphlets, posters, booklets, videos, TV programs, newspaper articles etc.
    29. 29. Thailand
    30. 30. Cassava Development Villages In Thailand, 21 Cassava Development Villages have been set up with the objective to empower the community to make their own decisions and help each other improve cassava production and farm income while protecting the natural resources
    31. 31. Cassava farmers in Thailand have planted a total of about 150 km of vetiver grass hedgerows to control erosion in their cassava fields
    32. 32. Vietnam
    33. 33. Thong Nhat commune in North Vietnam in 1998 Serious erosion problems and low yields of cassava and tea
    34. 34. Thong Nhat commune in North Vietnam in 2000 A farmer proudly shows off his “new cassava” field
    35. 35. In Van Yen district of Yen Bai province in north Vietnam farmers have planted 500 km of double row hedgerows of Tephrosia candida to control erosion
    36. 36. Table 1. Extent of adoption of new technologies by farmers participating or not directly participating in the Nippon Foundation project in Thailand and Vietnam1). Thailand Vietnam Over-all Technologies adopted Ù (% of households)( % o ( % Varieties - >75% improved varieties 99.7 41.0 67.0 - about 50% improved varieties 0.3 25.7 13.3 - mainly traditional varieties 0 23.4 11.1 Soil conservation practices - contour ridging 30.3 29.8 30.0 - hedgerows - vetiver grass 23.5 6.6 15.5 - Tephrosia candida 0 16.5 7.8 - Paspalum atratum 0.2 5.6 2.8 - pineapple 0 1.5 0.7 - sugarcane 0.9 0 0.5 - other hedgerows 1.1 3.8 2.4 Intercropping - with peanut 0.7 34.6 16.7 - with beans 0 26.0 12.3 - with maize 4.8 3.3 4.1 - with green manures 8.4 0 4.4 - other species 1.8 30.0 15.0 Fertilization - chemical fertilizers 88.2 79.9 84.2 - farm yard or green manure 33.7 56.0 45.7 1) Data are based on PRRA census forms collected at the end of the project (2003) from 439 households in Thailand and 393 households in Vietnam from farmers that had participated in FPR trials and or training courses, as well as from nearby farmers that had not directly participated in these project activities.
    37. 37. 30 Thailand Vietnam 25 Cassava yield (t/ha) 20 15 10 = project participants = non-participants 5 = all country (1999-2003) 0 Before After Before After project project project project Figure 1. Average cassava yields of farmers participating in the Nippon Foundation cassava project or of nearby but non-participating farmers, before the project started and at the end of the project. Data are from PRRA census forms collected from 439 households in Thailand and 393 household in Vietnam For comparison the national average cassava yields in 1999 (before) and 2003 (after) are also shown
    38. 38. 30 India Cassava root yield (t/ha) 25 20 Thailand China 15 Vietnam 10 5 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Figure 2. Change in cassava yield in four countries in Asia from 1994 to 2003.
    39. 39. Table 4. Estimated increase in gross income of cassava farming households (hh) in various countries in Asia as a result of increased cassava yields in 2007 as compared to 1984. Increased gross Estimated no. Estimated Total cassava Cassava yield income due to of hh growing additional gross 2) 3) area (t/ha) higher yields cassava gross income/hh (ha)1) 1984 20071) (mil. US$) (million) (US $) Cambodia 96,000 6.20 20.83 56.179 0.096 585.20 China 268,850 15.81 16.25 4.732 0.896 5.28 India 242,000 18.43 31.40 125.550 0.302 415.73 Indonesia 1,206,904 10.49 16.25 278.071 3.017 92.17 Laos 17,000 13.60 10.29 -2.251 0.039 - Malaysia 41,000 10.86 10.49 -0.607 - - Myanmar 16,500 11.77 12.79 0.673 - - Philippines 210,000 7.40 8.71 11.004 0.210 52.40 Sri Lanka 22,560 12.02 9.75 -2.048 - - Thailand 1,152,199 14.97 22.92 366.399 0.448 817.85 Timor Leste 12,000 4.19 4.14 -0.024 - - Vietnam 560,000 8.79 15.89 159.040 2.074 76.68 Total 3,845,013 12.71 18.67 916.651 7.120 128.74
    40. 40. These increases in yields are due to the widespread adoption of new high-yielding varieties and improved agronomic practices, but are also partly in response to ever increasing demand for cassava products, especially in China, such as: • cassava starch for food, paper, textiles etc • cassava dry chips for animal feed and bio-ethanol Thus, the future of cassava in Asia is very bright
    41. 41. ……but, there are some dark clouds on the horizon…. This year, for the first time, there are some serious disease and pest problems in cassava in Asia This will need serious and quick attention in order to find an effective solution, as these problems could have a devastating effect on the whole cassava sector in Asia
    42. 42. MEcu 72 Spiraling whitefly (Aleurodiscus dispersus) Excellent resistance of MEcu 72 to Aleurotrachelus socialis in Colombia
    43. 43. Cassava mealy bug Cassava mealybug (Ferrisia virgata)? (Phenacoccus manihoti)? Occurs mainly on plants weakened by K deficiency
    44. 44. This new mealy bug species has now spread to cassava fields in 25 provinces of Thailand
    45. 45. We also see a very unusual growth, which may be due to the mealy bug, to CBB or to a phytoplasm such as witches broom disease
    46. 46. These phytoplasm-like symptoms are widespread in southern Vietnam and in Thailand in 2009 and may seriously affect yields and the availability of clean planting material
    47. 47. ……..So Is this the future of our children?
    48. 48. ….or can we help farmers improve their livelihood AND protect the environment?..
    49. 49. Our Future!!!
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