Environmental and economic assessment of bioethanol
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Poster60: Enviromental and economic assessment of bioethanol production from Musa spp. waste


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Poster60: Enviromental and economic assessment of bioethanol production from Musa spp. waste

  1. 1. Environmental and economic assessment of bioethanol production from Musa spp. waste Sophie Graefe1, Luis Armando Muñoz1, Hortensia Solis2, Roberto Mata2 & Alonso González1 1CIAT, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Cali, Colombia, 2Coopedota, Costa Rica Introduction Musa spp. production systems generate large amounts of Household consumption 70 waste, as high numbers of fruits with no sufficient quality for Market the market accumulate. 60 Animal feed Waste Due to its high starch concentration Musa waste has a high 50 potential to be processed into bioethanol, which can be used 40 as alternative fuel for farm machinery and vehicles. % The present study reports results of an environmental and 30 economic assessment of the potential to process bioethanol 20 from Musa waste within the region of a coffee cooperative in 10 the province of San José, Costa Rica. The study area comprises 1500 ha small-scale coffee 0 plantations at altitudes between 1500 – 1900 m asl providing Guineo Plantain Banana livelihood to ca. 780 families, where Musa spp. are commonly grown to provide shade for coffee trees. Figure 1. Use of Musa spp. within the area of Coopedota, Costa Rica. Materials and Methods Bioethanol processed from Musa waste could substitute 24% of the gasoline demand of the cooperative, thereby saving Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 80 farmers of gasoline expenditures of 187,000 US-$ per year. the cooperative to gather information on cultivation methods, the availability and use of Musa biomass, as well as fuel The life cycle analysis resulted in a positive net energy balance demands of households. Preliminary results of 38 interviews of 12.9 MJ L-1, with biomass transport representing the largest are summarized below. energy demand along the production chain (Fig. 2). An energy and carbon life cycle analysis was conducted in Avoided carbon emissions amount to 0.67 kg C L-1 when using order to quantify energy inputs and C emissions along the Musa waste biofuel instead of conventional gasoline (Fig. 2). whole biofuel production chain. This would yield in 129 t saved C emissions per year for the whole area of Coopedota, assuming that the produced bioethanol would be solely used by the cooperative members. Results 97% of Coopedota farmers cultivate guineo, a nonplantain cooking banana, followed by several banana varieties (68%) 4 and plantain varieties (63%). Energy output / input ratio More than 40% of guineo fruits are left to be rotten in the field, 3 and around one third are used as animal feedstock. Only a small amount of guineo is used for home consumption or sold 2 on the market (Fig. 1). More than 50% of plantain and banana are used for home 1 consumption; a considerable smaller percentage is sold on markets or used as animal feed. The accumulation of waste 0 from plantain and banana is less than 15% of the total harvest Musa Sugarcane Corn Cassava Costa Rica Brazil US Thailand (Fig. 1). Total fruit waste accumulation could amount to 2842 t yr-1 for Figure 3. Energy output/input ratio of several bioethanol production systems. the whole area of the cooperative. From this feedstock around Data for sugarcane and corn were taken from De Oliveira et al. (2005) and for 192,866 L ethanol could be produced on a yearly basis (Fig. 2). cassava from Nguyen et al. (2007). No farm inputs Conclusions Transport 22.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 Carbon Carbon emissions Avoided The study showed a positive environmental as well as emissions 23.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 conventional gasoline C emissions 0.67 kg L-1 economic impact for the processing of Musa waste into 0.85 kg L-1 Processing 1.13 kg ha-1 yr-1 bioethanol. In terms of energy efficiency the system compares quite well with other common biofuel feedstock (Fig. 3). Availability of Bioethanol yield Musa waste does not compete for land resources or food, and biomass could be therefore promoted as a sustainable small-scale 128.6 L ha-1 yr-1 1.89 t ha-1 yr-1 option for substituting fossil fuels for local consumption in areas with large Musa waste accumulations. No farm inputs An effective operation requires the running of a processing Energy Net-energy plant at a cooperative or village level. Energy balance Transport 1006 MJ ha-1 yr-1 concentration requirements 1054 MJ ha-1 yr-1 bioethanol 1654 MJ ha-1 yr-1 or 12.9 MJ L-1 Further research is needed to quantify the amount of by- 2708 MJ ha-1 yr-1 Processing 48 MJ ha-1 yr-1 products generated through the processing of Musa waste, and to assess its potential to recover nutrients that are removed with harvest. Figure 2. Key findings of the lifecycle analyses. The financial support of FONTAGRO and CIM is gratefully acknowledged.