Eco-Efficient Agriculture &
     Central America




The field lab where you really
         want to be?
        A. Schmid...
Content

 The challenges
 The demand from the region
 Current activities (highlights)
 Some additional issues
 Conclu...
The challenges
 Poorest region of the hemisphere
 Continuing decrease of agriculture
  production vs. population growth
...
Degradation
Central America is a hot spot of land
degradation, affects 75% of agricultural land


                        ...
The challenges (2)
 Poorest region of the hemisphere
 Continuing decrease of agriculture
  production vs. population gro...
The challenges (3)

 Instability of the coffee sector
 Increased inequity
 Migration / brain drain
 Weak human resourc...
The “good” news
 Developing domestic markets
 Advances in CA integration (CA4)
 Free Trade Agreements: CAFTA, EU
 Grow...
Demand from the region

 Improved water use & management
 Soil fertility management
 Value chain development and market...
Content

 The challenges
 The demand from the region
 Current activities (highlights)
 Shortfalls and opportunities
 ...
Improved water use & management


 CFC-FLAR water harvesting project




           Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poo...
When there is water, there is
         no light
                      and
when there is light, there is no
           wate...
RADIACIÓN SOLAR EN NICARAGUA



                  540
                  520
                  500
Cal / Cm2 / Día




    ...
Improved water use & management




         Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   13
Soil fertility management in mixed systems




            Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   14
Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   15
Soil fertility management in mixed systems

 Canavalia brasiliensis is drought
  resistant,
 increases milk yield in the...
Soil fertility management




            Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   17
M a S S o n - f a r m v a lid a t io n r e s u lt s

    Effect of NuMaSS recommendations on maize production
    profitab...
Agroforestry System Quezungual

    Planting of crops into mulch under trees




            Eco-Efficient Agriculture for...
Agroforestry System Quezungual




         Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   20
Agroforestry System Quezungual




         Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   21
Agroforestry System Quezungual

 Results:
   Improved food security
   No fuel wood shortages
   Increased water avail...
Soil fertility / water management & markets

 RED SICTA Diversification project:
   Diversification of traditional maize...
Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   24
Value chains / markets

 Markets are the driving forces for
  production and decisions on the use
  of available resource...
Decision support for value chains
 PPP project Café Direct (Fair Trade)
 Project Partners: GTZ, CATIE, farmer
  organiza...
Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   27
Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   28
Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   29
Seed Supply Systems




        Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
Seed Supply System

   Decentralized seed production
   Biofortified crops
   32 partners in CA
   Strong training com...
Seed Supply System




           EMPRASEFOR


        Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   32
Capacity building

 Eco-efficient agriculture is based on
  information and knowledge
 Knowledge transfer is needed
 Ne...
Other issues

 Management is key to the concept of
  eco-efficiency – we have to reengage




           Eco-Efficient Ag...
Summary of results obtained by FLAR in Nicaragua
                        2004


             11
                          ...
Other issues
 Management is key to the concept of
  eco-efficiency – we have to reengage
 In order to confront the chall...
Conclusions
 The region is characterized by a number
  of serious challenges but provides
  opportunities to work on eco-...
Conclusions (2)
 Central America has all the conditions to
  be used as a field lab for research on
  eco-efficient agric...
Welcome to Central America




 “ … The place to be!”



       Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor   39
Welcome to Central America



     “ … is STILL
   the place to be!”

           Thank you
       Eco-Efficient Agricultur...
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Eco-Efficient Agriculture & Central America

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Presentation by Axel Schmidt for the CIAT KSW 2009

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  • Eco-Efficient Agriculture & Central America

    1. 1. Eco-Efficient Agriculture & Central America The field lab where you really want to be? A. Schmidt et al. 20/05/2009 Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 1
    2. 2. Content  The challenges  The demand from the region  Current activities (highlights)  Some additional issues  Conclusions Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 2
    3. 3. The challenges  Poorest region of the hemisphere  Continuing decrease of agriculture production vs. population growth  High degree of vulnerability to inevitably upcoming changes  Resource degradation Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 3
    4. 4. Degradation Central America is a hot spot of land degradation, affects 75% of agricultural land Very Severe Severe Source: UNEP-ISRIC, 1990 Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    5. 5. The challenges (2)  Poorest region of the hemisphere  Continuing decrease of agriculture production vs. population growth  High degree of vulnerability to inevitably upcoming changes  Resource degradation  Deforestation /agriculture frontier  Water deficit (human/production)  Energy crisis Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 5
    6. 6. The challenges (3)  Instability of the coffee sector  Increased inequity  Migration / brain drain  Weak human resources and national systems (ASTI-IFPRI/IICA 2008) Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 6
    7. 7. The “good” news  Developing domestic markets  Advances in CA integration (CA4)  Free Trade Agreements: CAFTA, EU  Growing interest of food processing industry to produce near sourcing base  “The horticulture revolution”  Changing consumer preferences / demands  … Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 7
    8. 8. Demand from the region  Improved water use & management  Soil fertility management  Value chain development and market connection  Seed supply systems  Capacity building (research and technology transfer) Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 8
    9. 9. Content  The challenges  The demand from the region  Current activities (highlights)  Shortfalls and opportunities  Conclusions Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 9
    10. 10. Improved water use & management  CFC-FLAR water harvesting project Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 10
    11. 11. When there is water, there is no light and when there is light, there is no water Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    12. 12. RADIACIÓN SOLAR EN NICARAGUA 540 520 500 Cal / Cm2 / Día 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320 300 Agosto Noviembre Enero Octubre Junio Julio Diciembre Septiembre Abril Marzo Mayo Febrero Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    13. 13. Improved water use & management Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 13
    14. 14. Soil fertility management in mixed systems Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 14
    15. 15. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 15
    16. 16. Soil fertility management in mixed systems  Canavalia brasiliensis is drought resistant,  increases milk yield in the dry season,  fixes up to 70 kg N/ha,  reduces mineral fertilizer input  Trade offs between forage use and soil improvement – danger of N depletion? Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 16
    17. 17. Soil fertility management Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 17
    18. 18. M a S S o n - f a r m v a lid a t io n r e s u lt s Effect of NuMaSS recommendations on maize production profitability at two locations in Honduras Candelaria , Lempira Variables Location 1 (SV) Location 2 (ITC) NuMaS Farmer NuMaSS Farmer S Fertilizer (kg/ha) 90 300 141 300 Yield (kg/ha) 2.7 1.23 3.0 1.7 511 85 575 191 Net gain (US$/ha) Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    19. 19. Agroforestry System Quezungual Planting of crops into mulch under trees Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 19
    20. 20. Agroforestry System Quezungual Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 20
    21. 21. Agroforestry System Quezungual Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 21
    22. 22. Agroforestry System Quezungual  Results:  Improved food security  No fuel wood shortages  Increased water availability on landscape level  Limited production potential  How to improve productivity? Diversification?  Danger of livestock introduction Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 22
    23. 23. Soil fertility / water management & markets  RED SICTA Diversification project:  Diversification of traditional maize bean systems based on market information  Crop specific fertilizer and water management  Simple protection measures  Strong training component Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 23
    24. 24. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 24
    25. 25. Value chains / markets  Markets are the driving forces for production and decisions on the use of available resources  Huge opportunities for income generation  Market information to avoid waste of resources  Markets may even push for ecoeff.ag. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 25
    26. 26. Decision support for value chains  PPP project Café Direct (Fair Trade)  Project Partners: GTZ, CATIE, farmer organizations  Nicaragua, Mexico, Peru  Impact of climate change on a fair trade value chain  Where will coffee cultivation still be possible in 2050?  What are the environmental variables that drive the suitability of an area to grow coffee? Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 26
    27. 27. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 27
    28. 28. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 28
    29. 29. Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 29
    30. 30. Seed Supply Systems Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    31. 31. Seed Supply System  Decentralized seed production  Biofortified crops  32 partners in CA  Strong training component Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 31
    32. 32. Seed Supply System EMPRASEFOR Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 32
    33. 33. Capacity building  Eco-efficient agriculture is based on information and knowledge  Knowledge transfer is needed  New models necessary?  Regional capacity building platform ?  IICA, CATIE, EMBRAPA, CG, Zamorano …  Knowledge management of former programs/projects Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 33
    34. 34. Other issues  Management is key to the concept of eco-efficiency – we have to reengage Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 34
    35. 35. Summary of results obtained by FLAR in Nicaragua 2004 11 9.9 10 9 Yield t/ha 8 7 7 6 5.5 5 4.4 4 Average Yield with Farmer yield Best national yield conventional with semi- management management improved 2004 2001-2003 management 2004 Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor
    36. 36. Other issues  Management is key to the concept of eco-efficiency – we have to reengage  In order to confront the challenges in the region, alliances are necessary to access multiple capacities  CIAT should take advantage of his unique infrastructure and legal status in the region and host “The CG Consortium” in CA Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 36
    37. 37. Conclusions  The region is characterized by a number of serious challenges but provides opportunities to work on eco-efficient agriculture technologies and management systems for the poor  “We do already eco-efficient agriculture”  But capacity upgrades / reengagement in some areas are necessary (e.g. water use, knowledge transfer, management)  Regional capacity building platform  CG Consortium Hub Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 37
    38. 38. Conclusions (2)  Central America has all the conditions to be used as a field lab for research on eco-efficient agriculture and it is an important impact zone for the new strategic directions of CIAT  We have to be involved on the ground with others, building and leading new networks and alliances; this is not possible by remote control Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 38
    39. 39. Welcome to Central America “ … The place to be!” Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 39
    40. 40. Welcome to Central America “ … is STILL the place to be!” Thank you Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the poor 40
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