Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                  CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



  Current status and utilization of cas...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                              CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


  Embrapa - Brazilian Agricu...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                 CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


  National Center for Cas...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                       CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



          Embrapa Cassava & Tropic...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                       CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



            Embrapa Cassava & Trop...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                       CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



          Embrapa Cassava & Tropic...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
   CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



                       Manihot esculenta Crantz
      ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                      CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Many forms of utilization




      ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Cassava distribution
   Grows ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                         CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Cassava in the world


        ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                          CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




       2006: Cassava World Pro...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                       CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Cassava in Brazil                ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                        CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Cassava in Brazil - Production s...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Cassava in Brazil - Production ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


 Cassava in Bra...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


 Cassava in Bra...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




    CONSTRAINTS for cassava
production, proce...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                          CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Biotic Stresses:
Pests

      ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                      CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Biotic Stresses:
Diseases


wet ro...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                             CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Biotic Stresses:
Diseases

...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                         CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Abiotic Stresses:
Drought and p...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




  What is behind the mechanis...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                                          CIAT, Colombia, 1...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                  CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


  Identifying functional...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                               CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



Cassava Br...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                      CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



   ...
BRS Mani Branca (starch and semi-arid)
                     enhas
Photo Maurício Mascare
    o:




                    Ph...
BRS Aramaris (starch and root rot resistance)
                     enhas
Photo Maurício Mascare
    o:




               ...
Root yield 33.80 t/ha   DM 30 %
                     enhas
Photo Maurício Mascare
    o:




                    Photo: W....
Varieties Rosada, Dourada, Gema de Ovo
                                     ,         ,
                         (rich in ...
BRS Formosa
                             (starch and bacteriosis resistant)
                     enhas
Photo Maurício Masc...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
             CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Introduction and utilization of wild
Maniho...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                               CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010

Origin of cassava
  Areas of...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                             CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Projects related to wild cass...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Projects related to wild cassav...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Introduction of wild germplasm
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                 CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Sexu...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                           CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Transfer of CENARGEN´s col...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                        CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Cuttings and ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                  CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Cuttings and sexual...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
         CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




 Collection expedition of new
species/accession...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                               CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Collection of new species/a...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                      CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Collection of n...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
             CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Status and utilization of the Manihot
     ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                     CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



Establishment of a manihot wild spec...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                          CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


Embrapa’s field collections of w...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Embrapa’s field collectio...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Embrapa’s field collectio...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Embrapa’s field collectio...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Embrapa’s field collectio...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Embrapa’s field collectio...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                    CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




                    ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                         CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     Sexual seeds...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


     4.5. ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                 CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


4.5. Util...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                       CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


4.5. Utilization of...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                                                         CI...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                                   CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 Ma...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                                     CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                                                              CIAT, Colombi...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                                             CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010


4.5. Utilizat...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
                            CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010



Project Team

EMBRAPA        ...
Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop
   CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010




Thank you!

  Alfredo A. C. Alves
   Alfredo.Alves@ar...
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Current status and utilization of cassava wild Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 germplasm at Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits

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Current status and utilization of cassava wild Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 germplasm at Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits

  1. 1. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Current status and utilization of cassava wild germplasm at Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits Alfredo A. C. Alves, PhD Embrapa Labex-USA Genetic Resources
  2. 2. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation • Coordenation of the Brazilian Agricultural Research System Embrapa Headquarters 09 National Thematic Centers 15 National Product Centers 13 Agroforesty or Ecorregional Research Centers 03 S Special S i l Services Centers i C t 17 State Ag. Research Organizations AACA 8/Oct/2007
  3. 3. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 National Center for Cassava and Tropical Fruits Research (CNPMF) Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits • Created in 1975 • Total area: 262 ha • 213 Employees, 74 Researchers MISSION: to provide solutions for the sustainable development of the cassava and tropical fruit crops agribusiness by generation, adaptation and transfer of knowledge and technologies for social benefit
  4. 4. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits • The mandate crops: Pineapple Acerola Banana (Barbados Cherry) AACA 8/Oct/2007
  5. 5. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits • The mandate crops: Citrus Papaya Mango AACA 8/Oct/2007
  6. 6. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits • The mandate crops: Passion Fruit Cassava AACA 8/Oct/2007
  7. 7. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Manihot esculenta Crantz (Cassava; Mandioca; Yuca; Manioc; Tapioca) Animal feed silage, hay, in natura Human food leaf flour, maniçoba Planting material (1/10) Human food ‘farinha’, boiled and fried roots, starch and its products Animal feed pellets, root flour, raw roots, etc Industry products AACA 8/Oct/2007
  8. 8. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Many forms of utilization AACA 4Sep2008
  9. 9. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava distribution Grows between 30oN and 30oS latitude mostly in areas marginal for most others crops 30oN 30oS
  10. 10. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in the world Area Production Yield Part. Part. acum. Países (ha) (t) (t/ha) (%) (%) Nigeria 3,500,000 33,379,000 9.5 17.1 17.1 Brasil , , 1,780,870 24,230,332 , , 13.6 12.4 29.5 Thailand 1,050,000 20,400,000 19.4 10.4 39.9 Indonesia 1,285,718 19,196,950 14.9 9.8 49.7 Rep. Dem. Congo 1,900,000 14,950,500 7.9 7.6 57.4 Ghana 819,000 9,828,000 12.0 5.0 62.4 India 270,000 7,100,000 26.3 3.6 66.0 Tanzania 660,000 6,890,000 10.4 3.5 69.5 Mozambique 1,045,625 6,149,897 5.9 3.1 72.7 Angola 640,000 5,600,000 8.8 2.9 75.5 Source: FAO (2005). (2005) AACA 8/Oct/2007
  11. 11. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 2006: Cassava World Production (P): 226 million tons Harvest Area (A): 19 million ha 30oN 70% P 75% A Yield 12t/ha 30oS Drought prone areas 4-7 months water deficit AACA 4Sep2008
  12. 12. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in Brazil Production (P) ............. 25.725.207 t Harvested Area (A) ....... 1.886.424 ha Yield (Y) ........................ 13.6 t/ha By Region B R i P = 28 % A = 26 % P = 37 % Y = 14.7 t/ha A = 47 % Y = 10.9 t/ha P=5% A=5% Y = 15.2 t/ha P = 10 % A=7% Y = 18.6 t/ha Source: IBGE, 2006 P = 20 % A = 15 % Y = 17.6 t/ha AACA 8/Oct/2007
  13. 13. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in Brazil - Production systems Small farmer production (mainly for cassava flour or ‘farinha’) Larger scale production for industrial purposes (for ‘farinha’ and starch) farinha AACA 8/Oct/2007
  14. 14. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in Brazil - Production systems y Small scale production - subsistence farming AACA 8/Oct/2007
  15. 15. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in Brazil - Production systems y Large scale production - industry Photos: C. Cardoso AACA 8/Oct/2007
  16. 16. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava in Brazil - Production systems y Large scale production - industry Photos: C. Cardoso AACA 8/Oct/2007
  17. 17. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 CONSTRAINTS for cassava production, processing and market AACA-28Apr2005
  18. 18. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Biotic Stresses: Pests cassava green mites (CGM) whitefly hornworm Mealybug (MB) AACA-28Apr2005
  19. 19. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Biotic Stresses: Diseases wet root rot bacteriosis (CBB) dry root rot AACA-28Apr2005
  20. 20. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Biotic Stresses: Diseases Cassava brown streak disease cassava mosaic disease (CMD AACA-28Apr2005
  21. 21. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Abiotic Stresses: Drought and poor soils AACA-28Apr2005
  22. 22. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 What is behind the mechanisms that make cassava a famous drought tolerant crop? g p Project Identifying the physiological and genetic traits that make cassava one of the most drought tolerant crops Funded by: Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), 2005-present y g g ( ) p Main Objectives: • Id tif functional t it responsible for drought tolerance and yield Identify f ti l traits ibl f d ht t l d i ld performance under drought in cassava genotypes • Identify molecular markers for drought tolerance traits via QTL and candidate gene mapping towards a more efficient breeding approach for drought performance of cassava
  23. 23. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Identifying functional traits Storage Root FW (kg/plant) WW 6 WS TOL 4 2 0 4.5 MAP 6 MAP 10 MAP Time SUS WW: full irrigation WS: WS no i i ti irrigation from f 3.0 to 4.5 MAP Photos: Alfredo Alves Harvest: 4.5 MAP
  24. 24. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Identifying functional traits SUMMARY 1) Better yielding genotypes have more open stomata, indicating they have deeper roots and access soil water 2) Genotypes that accumulate substantial stem starch reserves may be more able to sustain meristems and other respiring organs during a prolonged stress t 3) Genotypes that maintain partitioning to storage roots and have high harvest index yield better in drought A. Alves 17Sep2008
  25. 25. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cassava Brazilian germplasm collection Regionals germplasm banks 5 4 2 Institution Accessions 1 Responsible BIOMES Embrapa C b Cassava & 3 1 Tropical Fruits 2038 Amazon Forest 2 Embrapa Semi-arid 415 3 Embrapa Cerrados 445 Atlantic Forest 4 Embrapa Western Amazonia 560 7 Savannah 5 Embrapa Eastern Amazonia 444 8 Semi-Arid 6 EPAGRI 800 7 IAC 300 6 Campos (Plains) 8 IAPAR 200 Pantanal TOTAL 5202 Coast Source: Fukuda, 2008
  26. 26. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Varieties released to different Brazilian regions/ecosystems Rosa Flor de Boi Bujá Amansa Burro BRS Purus (IM-025) Chapéu de Sol Jussara Salamandra Zolhudinha (IM-158) Tapioqueira Jurará Aciolina Tianguá Mãe Joana (IM-186) Peruana IM 158 IM-158 Fragosa agosa Ubaja a Ubajara Amazonas Embrapa-8 Jarina Ibiapaba Poti Branca Paraguai Mari (CPATU 297) Aipim Brasil Maragogipe IM-006 Poti (CPATU 300) Kiriris Manteiga IM-175 Aramaris Saracura Gema de Ovo Casca Roxa Dourada Valença ç North Rosada Caetité Mulatinha Catulina Prata Bibiana Araçá Parati Northeast Guaíra Mani Branca Crioula Mestiça Arari Jaburú Formosa Cidade Rica Mantiqueira M i i Tapioqueira Cigana Preta Jaçanã Fibra Pioneira Mico Central Verdinha Caipira Platina Olho Roxo Iracema Sonora IAC 12 IAC 13 West Arizoninha Preta Sonora IAC 12-829 IAC 14 Veada Engana Ladrão IAC 352-6 IAC 15 Unha Mantiqueira ( q (IAC 24-2) ) EAB-81 EAB 81 Fécula Branca Fé l B Sutinga Verdinha (IAC 14-18) EAB-653 Espeto Mangue Mirim Preta (IAC 59-210) Formosa Gema de Ovo Manjari IAC 12-829 Cacau IAC 576-70 Fibra Ovo Jaçanã (IAC X-352-7) Sources: Moraes et al. (1980) Espeto Taquari Amarela Branca de Santa Catarina Pinho et al. (1986) Branca de Santa Catarina Aipim Gigante Casca Roxa Roxinha Fukuda & Borges (1989) Fitinha Mantiqueira M ti i Sinhá está na mesa Mico Fukuda et al. (2002) Olho Junto Mico Pernambucana Pão do Chile Fibra Lorenzi et al. (2002) IAC 13 Mandim Branca Cascudinha São Pedro Mirim Pampas Aipim Pretinho Takahashi &¨Gonçalo (2005) IAC 14 Vassourinha Baianinha Chagas Aipim Roxinho Fukuda & Iglesias (2006) IAC 15 Fécula Branca IAC 90 Fukuda et al. (2008) Aipim Paraíba Santa Cruz Machado IAPAR 5017 Vassourinha
  27. 27. BRS Mani Branca (starch and semi-arid) enhas Photo Maurício Mascare o: Photo: W. Fukuda Root yield 27.60 t/ha DM 35.20 %
  28. 28. BRS Aramaris (starch and root rot resistance) enhas Photo Maurício Mascare o: Photo: W. Fukuda Root yield 29.60 t/ha DM 34 %
  29. 29. Root yield 33.80 t/ha DM 30 % enhas Photo Maurício Mascare o: Photo: W. Fukuda BRS Kiriris (starch and root rot resistance)
  30. 30. Varieties Rosada, Dourada, Gema de Ovo , , (rich in lycopene or carotene) Photos: W. Fukuda
  31. 31. BRS Formosa (starch and bacteriosis resistant) enhas Photo Maurício Mascare o: Photo: W. Fukuda Root yield 42.97 t/ha
  32. 32. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Introduction and utilization of wild Manihot species at Embrapa/CNPMF
  33. 33. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Origin of cassava Areas of cassava diversity dense diversity no dense diversity 98 species of Manihot Only one cultivated: M. esculenta
  34. 34. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Projects related to wild cassava • Development of low-cost technologies for pyramiding useful genes from wild relatives of cassava into elite progenitors Period: 2005-2008 Funded by: Generation Challenge Program (GCP) - G.3005.09 Institutions: CIAT (leader); Embrapa; African NARS (Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda) • Utilization of cassava wild species as source of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses Period: 2007-2010 Funded by: Embrapa Institutions: Embrapa (leader), Brazilian Universities, CIAT
  35. 35. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Projects related to wild cassava • Embrapa´s main activities Introduction and management of Manihot wild species at CNPMF Field and greenhouse evaluation of cassava wild germplasm for tolerance g g p to biotic and abiotic estresses Development of in-house MAS capacity to breed for resistance to pests and diseases Development of protocols for multiplication and long-term preservation of wild germplasm ld l
  36. 36. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Introduction of wild germplasm
  37. 37. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Sexual seeds of wild species from Embrapa/CENARGEN Species # Seeds Received on M. anomala 200 10-mai-05 M. caerulescens 15 22 jun 06 22-jun-06 M. cecropiaefolia 30 10-mai-05 M. cecropiaefolia 30 22-jun-06 M. compositifolia 18 15-abr-08 M. anomala M. dichotoma 15 j 22-jun-06 M. peruviana M. dichotoma 111 30-nov-07 M. dichotoma 21 30-nov-07 M. dichotoma 42 30-nov-07 M. dichotoma 6 15-abr-08 M. flabellifolia 200 10-mai-05 M. glaziovii 200 10-mai-05 M. glaziovii 200 22-jun-06 M. glaziovii M. glaziovii 537 30-nov-07 M. tomentosa M. glaziovii 195 30-nov-07 M. peruviana 200 10-mai-05 M. pseudoglaziovii cf. 8 15-abr-08 M. tomentosa 30 10-mai-05 M. violacea 100 10-mai-05 TOTAL 2158 M. cecropiaefolia M. flabellifolia Photos: Alfredo Alves
  38. 38. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Transfer of CENARGEN´s collection to CNPMF Photos: Alfredo Alves
  39. 39. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cuttings and sexual seeds from UFBA collection Collect of accessions of M. dichotoma, M. caerulescens, M. glaziovii, and ‘mandioca sete anos’ (Sep-Dec/2005) Photos: Alfredo Alves M. dichotoma (UFB-14, 16, 17)
  40. 40. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Cuttings and sexual seeds from Embrapa/CPATSA, Petrolina • Stakes of 5 accessions of ‘Pornúncia’ (natural hybrid) Photos: Alfredo Alves
  41. 41. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Collection expedition of new species/accessions of Manihot
  42. 42. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Collection of new species/accessions Two collection expeditions Points of collection: 13 14 accessions of 7 species i f i 1. caerulescens (5) 5. diamantinensis (1) 2. dichotoma (4) 6. maracasensis (1) 3. 3 glaziovii (1) 7. 7 Pornuncia (1) 4. jacobinensis (1) One collection expedition Points of collection: 18 28 accessions of 17 species 1. violacea (8) 10. tristis (1) 2. anomala (2) 11. triphylla (1) 3. tomentosa (2) 12. stipularis (1) BIOMES 4. tripartita (2) 13. cecropiaefolia (1) Savannah (Cerrado) ( ) 5. fruticulosa (2) 14. falcata (1) 6. 6 gracilis (1) ili 15. li if li 15 salicifolia (1) Semi-Arid (Caatinga) 7. sparsifolia (1) 16. irwinii (1) 8. nana (1) 17. pentaphylla (1) 9. mossamedensis (1)
  43. 43. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Collection of new species/accessions M. stipularis M. caerulescens M. diamantinensis M. cecropiaefolia Photos: Alfredo Alves
  44. 44. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Status and utilization of the Manihot collections
  45. 45. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Establishment of a manihot wild species collection at p CNPMF (begin: Aug/2005) Currently: ~ 557 accessions of 21 wild species
  46. 46. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot # Species # of accessions 01 M. anomala 102 02 M. caerulescens 34 03 M. M cecropiaefolia 8 04 M. compositifolia 13 05 M. dichotoma 44 06 M. epruinosa 1 07 M. M flabellifolia 75 08 M. glaziovii 63 09 M. irwinii 10 10 M. jacobinensis 4 11 M. janiphoides 1 12 M. maracasensis 1 13 M. peruviana 103 14 M. pseudoglaziovii 35 15 M. tomentosa 34 16 M. tripartita 1 17 M. triphylla 1 18 M. violacea 2 19 'Mandioca sete anos' 11 20 Manihot spp 8 21 'Pornúncia' 6 Total 557
  47. 47. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot M. glaziovii Photos: Alfredo Alves
  48. 48. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot M. dichotoma Photos: Alfredo Alves
  49. 49. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot M. irwinii Photos: Alfredo Alves
  50. 50. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot M. tomentosa Photos: Alfredo Alves
  51. 51. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Embrapa’s field collections of wild Manihot M. anomala Photos: Alfredo Alves
  52. 52. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 dicho. dicho caeru. caeru dicho. dicho dicho. dicho glazi. maniç. dicho. peruv. flabe. tomen. peruv. anom. cecro. escul. escul. irwin. Photos: Alfredo Alves
  53. 53. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Sexual seeds collected within wild collection (OP) peruviana # Species of Manihot # of seeds 01 anomala 3307 02 caerulescens 112 03 cecropiaefolia 301 04 compositifolia 0 05 diamantinensis 0 06 dichotoma 5767 07 flabellifolia 24604 08 fruticulosa 0 flabellifolia 09 glaziovii 179 10 irwinii 1331 11 jacobinensis 33 12 maracasensis 0 13 pentaphylla 0 14 peruviana 25041 15 salicifolia 0 16 tomentosa 1262 17 triphylla 0 dichotoma caerulescens 18 tripartita 0 19 violacea 0 20 'Maniçoba' 2369 21 'Pornúncia' Pornúncia 22 22 'Sete Anos' 280 TOTAL 64608 Photos: Alfredo Alves
  54. 54. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on crossbreeding between wild and cultivated species M. flabellifolia M. esculenta M. esculenta M. tomentosa X X FLA-005-04 A. Bravo F1 A. Bravo TOM-018V-01 F1 # Pollinated % Fertilized % Fruit % Produced Dehiscense MOTHER X FATHER Flowers Flowers Set Seeds (days) Wild species M. esculenta X 851 36.0 9.8 6.0 69 (13 sp.) (25 var.) M. M esculenta Wild species X 147 59.2 18.4 6.8 70 (14 var.) (7 sp.) TOTAL 998 39.4 11.0 6.1 70 Photos: Alfredo Alves Source: Alves et al. (2008)
  55. 55. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on crossbreeding between wild and cultivated species WILD SPECIES x CULTIVATED MOTHER X FATHER # Pollinated % Fertilized % Fruit % Produced Dehiscense (wild) (cultivated) Flowers Flowers Set Seeds (days) M. anomala M. esculenta 92 43.5 2.2 1.5 66 M. flabellifolia M. esculenta 318 23.3 10.4 8.5 68 M. jacobinensis M. esculenta 43 20.9 9.3 6.2 48 M. peruviana M. esculenta 80 35.0 11.2 6.7 79 M. tomentosa M. esculenta 89 76.4 10.1 4.1 81 Pornúncia M. esculenta 16 18.8 6.2 0 82 TOTAL 638 34.8 9.1 6.3 71 CULTIVATED x WILD SPECIES MOTHER X FATHER # Pollinated % Fertilized % Fruit % Produced Dehiscense (wild) (cultivated) Flowers Flowers Set Seeds (days) M. esculenta M. anomala 14 50.0 14.3 0 66 M. esculenta M. flabellifolia 62 66.1 35.5 15.1 66 M. esculenta M. jacobinensis 20 70.0 0 0 0 M. esculenta M. peruviana 15 100.0 0 0 0 M. M esculenta M. M tomentosa 23 30.4 30 4 13.0 13 0 2.9 29 77 M. esculenta Pornúncia 13 23.1 0 0 0 TOTAL 147 59.2 18.4 6.8 70 Source: Alves et al. (2008)
  56. 56. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Evaluation of wild species and interespecific hybrids for resistance to pests and diseases in different Brazilian regions 5 4 Severity y 3 2 1 0 M. anomala M. dichotoma M. flabellifolia M. glaziovii M. peruviana Severity (scale from 0 to 5) de cercospora in different accessions of cassava wild species in ‘São Miguel das Matas’, Bahia São Matas Source: Dita et al. (2008)
  57. 57. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm Clustering of Manihot accessions based on the oviposition rate of M. tanajoa 2,5 # of egg / female / day 2 e 1,5 1 gs 0,5 0 DIC001p08 FLA030v MAN093v FBA096v ER005-01 LA005-06 ER009-06 ER002-09 DIC587-2 NO002-01 O059v-01 O058v-01 R001v-02 O050v-01 D UF M PER ANO ANO ANO PE PE PE FL AN Source: Noronha et al. (2008) Genotype
  58. 58. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on pollen and nectar production, pollen viability and citogenetics 120 100 Pollen viability (%) 80 60 40 VIABLE UNVIABLE 20 0 flabellifolia irwinii peruviana tomentosa pornuncia3 esculenta yp Genotypes Source: Vidal et al. (2008)
  59. 59. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on pollen and nectar production, pollen viability and citogenetics 3500 rains/flower r 3000 2500 Number of pollen gr 2000 1500 1000 500 0 anomala flabellifolia peruviana tomentosa esculenta Genotypes Source: Vidal et al. (2008)
  60. 60. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on pollen and nectar production, pollen viability and citogenetics 190 80 180 micrometer) 170 160 Pollen diameter (m 150 140 d 130 120 anomala esculenta3 flabellifolia irwinii peruviana tomentosa Source: Vidal et al. (2008)
  61. 61. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 4.5. Utilization of wild Manihot germplasm • Studies on pollen and nectar production, pollen viability and citogenetics Meiosis phases in Manihot species Source: Silva et al. (2008)
  62. 62. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Project Team EMBRAPA UFRB, Bahia Alba Farias, CNPMF Farias Maria Vidal SPONSORS Alberto Vilarinhos, CNPMF Paulo de Carvalho Alfredo Alves, CNPMF Alineaurea Silva, CPATSA Aloyséia Noronha, CPATU UFRPE, Pernambuco Antonio Souza, CNPMF Reginaldo de Carvalho Carlos Ledo, CNPMF 2 scholarships Fernanda Souza CNPMF Souza, Ivo Costa, CENARGEN Janay Serejo, CNPMF UFPE, Pernambuco João Tomé, CPATU Ana Benko-Iseppon pp Jonny Pereira, CENARGEN Miguel Dias, CPAA Miguel Dita, CNPMF CIAT, Colômbia Rui Mendes, CENARGEN Anthony Bellotti Vanderlei Santos, CNPMF Hernan Ceballos ~ 15 scholarships Martin Fregene
  63. 63. Ginés-Mera Fellowship Workshop CIAT, Colombia, 12-13 May 2010 Thank you! Alfredo A. C. Alves Alfredo.Alves@ars.usda.gov @ g alfredoalves3@gmail.com

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