Poster30: Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods: The case of GM biofortified cassava in the Northeast of Brazil
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Poster30: Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods: The case of GM biofortified cassava in the Northeast of Brazil

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ciatapr10, ciat, poster, "poster Exhibit", poster30, cassava, yuca, agbio

ciatapr10, ciat, poster, "poster Exhibit", poster30, cassava, yuca, agbio

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Poster30: Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods: The case of GM biofortified cassava in the Northeast of Brazil Poster30: Consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods: The case of GM biofortified cassava in the Northeast of Brazil Document Transcript

  • Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods: The Case of GM Biofortified Cassava in the Northeast of Brazil Carolina Gonzalez1,4, Nancy Johnson2 and Matin Qaim3 1International Center for Tropical Agriculture– CIAT, 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), 3 Göttingen University, 4Hoheheim University Contacto: c.gonzalez@cgiar.org Introduction Biofortified staple foods are currently being developed to reduce problems of micronutrient malnutrition among the poor. Research mostly builds on conventional breeding techniques. Yet there are also species where certain micronutrients are absent, or occur only in very small amounts, so that use of biotechnology seems more promising. This is the case of cassava and provitamin A. Genetic modification could potentially boost provitamin A contents, thus more effectively reducing problems of vitamin A deficiency. On the other hand, genetically modified (GM) cassava might raise consumer concerns about health and environmental risks . The present study examines consumer attitudes towards GM cassava in the Northeast (NE) of Brazil. Methodology Female respondents and households with small children have a higher We assess acceptance of GM biofortified cassava among consumers in WTP; those who have ethical concerns, or are particularly worried NE Brazil by estimating their willingness to pay (WTP). Contingent about health risks of GM crops, have a lower WTP. Household income valuation (CV) and choices modeling (CM) techniques were employed to levels do not appear to have a significant effect separate from other estimate consumer WTP. socio-economic characteristics (see Table 2). Using the CM approach we analyzed the trade-offs between different cassava characteristics and estimated the partial WTP for each attribute. For the vitamin A alone, the average consumer is willing to pay premium of 160%. However, a discount is required for the cassava colour change from white to yellow (-29%), and an additional discount results from the fact that the cassava is GM (-61%) (see Table 3). The Figure 1. Map of NE Brazil and Pernambuco. CM approach generates a mean WTP of 70% over current market CV techniques are often used to analyze individual preferences and elicit prices. the monetary value of goods that are not yet marketed. CM is a tool to Table 3. Rank-ordered logit model for GM cassava determine how consumers value different attributes of a certain good Variables Coefficient Std. error WTP (Bateman, et al., 2002). Price 1.93*** 0.70 Results GM status 0.91*** 0.09 -0.47 Using the four-point scale data about consumer support of GM cassava, Vitamin A content -2.36*** 0.15 1.23 we estimated a model to explore the factors underlying consumer Colour (yellow) 0.42*** 0.09 -0.22 perceptions (see Table 1). Consumers who trust the regulatory Log likelihood -1105.95 authorities are more supportive of the GM technology, while people who Chi-squared 419.53*** are concerned about GM health risks tend to oppose its introduction. N=414; *, **, *** statistically significant at 10%, 5% and 1% level, respectively Table 1. Ordered logit model for explaining consumer support of GM cassava Variables Coefficient Std. error Age 0.02* 0.01 Children <5 0.14 0.25 Education 0.03 0.03 Per capita household income 0.00 0.00 Figure 2. “Choice sets” presented to responders and consumers in the NE of Brazil Trust in regulatory authorities 0.55** 0.22 Perceived GM health risks -3.05*** 0.46 Discussion Access to mass media 0.48* 0.29 What does the estimated premium mean in terms of household budget Chi-squared 54.68*** share? Mean monthly per capita expenditure for cassava is around 3 N=414; *, **, *** statistically significant at 10%, 5% and 1% level, respectively reais ($1.42), accounting for 1.8% of average household income. A 64% price premium for GM cassava would increase monthly expenditure to Based on the CV approach, on average, consumers are willingness to 4.9 reais, or 3% of household income, indicating the strength of pay 0.49 reais more (a 64% price premium) for GM cassava than for preference/acceptance for more nutritious cassava. Nonetheless, the traditional cassava without vitamin A. idea is not to really sell GM biofortified cassava at a premium. The large Table 2. WTP model for GM cassava WTP is simply a clear indication of positive acceptance levels and an expected increase in consumer utility through GM cassava. Variables Coefficient Std. error Cassava price paid (reais/kg) 0.56*** 0.11 Conclusions Female respondent 0.14** 0.07  75% of all respondents in our survey said they would support the Children <5 0.07* 0.04 introduction of this new technology. Per capita household income 0.00 0.00  Based on CV and CM techniques, mean WTP is estimated at 64-70% Cassava consumption (per week) -0.03*** 0.01 above market prices for cassava. Perceived GM health risks -0.29*** 0.08  The results also suggest that acceptance would be higher still if Trust in regulatory authorities -0.02 0.04 provitamin A were introduced to cassava through conventional Access to mass media 0.04 0.05 breeding. Willingness to eat new products a. Average willingness -0.08 0.07 Acknowledgements (reference is high willingness) b. Low willingness -0.07 0.08 The financial support CIAT and the HarvestPlus Challenge Program are gratefully c. Avoid -0.01 0.08 acknowledged. A especially grateful to Brazilian consumers, who where the key to the outcome of this study. Preferred way to increase vitamin A a. Conventional -0.27*** 0.04 (reference is through GM) b. Indifferent -0.25*** 0.08 References Bateman, I.J., Carson, R.T., Day B., Hanemann, M., Hanley, N. Hett, T., Jones-Lee, M. Prior knowledge about GM crops 0.09* 0.05 Loomes, G., Mourato, S., Özdemiroglu, E., Pearce, D.W, Sugden, R. and Swanson, J. Chi-squared 104.07*** Economic Valuation with Stated Preference Techniques: A Manual. Edward Elgar, N=414; *, **, *** statistically significant at 10%, 5% and 1% level, respectively Cheltenham, 2002.