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Cassava at CIAT
 

Cassava at CIAT

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    Cassava at CIAT Cassava at CIAT Presentation Transcript

    • Cassava at CIAT
      Annual Program Review 2011
      Nairobi, Kenya9 May 2011
      Clair Hershey
    • Cassava at the vortex
      Cassava: in a unique position to respond to some of the trends of the global economy and to the ramifications of climate change:
      Higher food prices and food security for urban poor
      Income generation for poor farmers
      Cost of inputs and resource use efficiency
      Variable rainfall patterns and higher temperatures due to climate change
      Demands for renewable, eco-efficient energy sources
    • This presentation
      Supporting farmer income and human health through value-added traits
      Identifying gender-sensitive varietal traits and management
      Developing and applying the basic tools for genetic improvement
      Preparing for new challenges of biotic constraints
    • Supporting farmer income and human health through value-added traits
      - Starch mutants- Carotenoids- Post-harvest storage
    • Cassava can lead the way among tropical crops to support expanding food, feed and industrial markets
      Waxy (amylose-free)
      Combines highly desirable traits for the processed food industry, especially frozen products
      Small starch granulesClear advantage for ethanol: rapid hydrolysis (starch to sugar conversion) and lesser use of enzyme for same rate
    • Some starch traits important for the food industry:
      suitability of normal and mutant sources
    • What is the waxy trait worth?
      “Amylopectin starch has the potential to provide added value estimated at approximately €100 million per year to the European starch potato industry and associated farmers.”
      http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/innovations/innovative-solutions/amflora (2008)
    • Glucose content during simultaneous saccharification & fermentation of cassava starch for ethanol production
      Enzyme: Stargen 2; Genencor
    • Cassava-based material in medical and packing application:
      Cassava-based composite fibers were fabricated for skin tissue scaffold application
      JackaponSunthornvarabhas, PathamaChatakanonda, KuakoonPiyachomkwan and KlanarongSriroth, Bangkok (Thailand)
      62nd Starch Convention 2011, 13-14 April, 2011, Detmold
    • Development of double mutants to generate new starch phenotypes
      Waxystarch (wxwxSGSG)
      Small Granule WxWxsgsg
      X
      F1 (WxwxSGsg)
      Self-pollinated or crossed
      Wx-- SG--
      (Normal starch)
      wxwx SG--
      (Waxy starch)
      Wx -- sgsg
      (Small granule)
      wxwxsgsg
      (Double mutant)
      784 S1 and 188 “F2”, transplanted at the end of 2010, will be harvested and tested by the end of 2011
    • y = 2.346x + 8.6995
      R2 = 0.7763
      Progress in breeding for total carotenoids content
      (A nutritional goal of 15µg/g established in 2005)
      30
      Maximum
      25
      20
      TCC (µg/ g)
      15
      Average
      10
      5
      Minimum
      0
      2005
      2006
      2007
      2008
      2009
      2010
      Year
    • Rapid screening: use of a colorimeter for quantifying β-carotene
      50
      y = 2.4242x - 1.7686
      2
      R
      = 0.6247
      40
      30
      20
      Selection index
      10
      0
      2
      6
      10
      14
      18
      -10
      -20
      All trans β-carotene
    • First evaluation of post-harvest physiological deterioration in Thailand (April 2011)
      1. Training on the procedure
      2. Introduction of potential sources of tolerance
    • Gender-sensitive traits
      Most women in Africa are involved in weeding cassava fields (typically for the first two months of the crop).
      Tolerance to herbicides could have a positive impact on the lives of these women. We are focusing on this trait by screening for naturally occurring mutants.
    • Gender-sensitive traits
      Women in Africa and LAC are involved in peelingcassava for small processing facilities (i.e. gari,farinha, etc.)
      Thick peel facilitates peeling, but is undesirable for starch extraction.
      The article “Genetic variability of root peel thickness and its influence in extractable starch from cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz) roots” to be published in Plant Breeding address this issue.
    • Developing and applying the basic tools for genetic improvement
    • Inbreeding in cassava through the production of double haploids: 2010-2013supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
      Project partners:
      CIAT Colombia Anther & Microspore technology; Crosses with wild Cassava relatives H. Ceballos, B. Dedicova, P. Perera
      ICESI, ColombiaOvule technology Z. Lentini , A. Gonzales
      SChIB, China( South China Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Science),
      Microspore technology Ch. Wang
      ISBS, China(Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences),China Microspore technology Z. Peng
      NaCRI, Uganda(National Crops Resources Research Institute),
      Anther.& Microspore& Ovule technology Y. Baguma, M. Namutebi
      IITA,Nigeria(International Institute of Tropical Agriculture)
      Crosses with wild Cassava relatives Peter Kulakow
    • Anther culture
      Tested factors for embryogenesis induction of the microspores in the anthers
      Stress pretreatment
      Basal medium
      Pollen developmental stage
      Successfully induced microspore embryogenesis
      Plant regeneration is in progress
    • Microspore Culture
      • Tested factors for embryogenesis induction of the microspores
      • Stress pretreatment
      • Pollen developmental stage
      • Based on the size of the flower
      • Based on the size of the microspore/pollen
      • Successfully induced microspore embryogenesis
      • Cytological observations proved the origin of the callus is from the microspore/pollen grain
      Induced tetrads and micro callus formation
      Induced pollen grains and micro callus formation
    • New research on reproductive biology
      Growth of pollen tube in female flowers (a-b); one hour after pollination (c-d) and three hours after pollination (e-f)
      Training
      Natalia Ramos(Ph.D. student, wide crosses)
    • Genetics and Genomics
      Segregation for root color in an advanced breeding family
      17 μg
      0 μg
    • Genetics and GenomicsMAS for carotenoids
      -Carotene Pathway in Plants
      IPP
      Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
      Phytoene synthase
      Phytoene
      Phytoene desaturase
      ξ-carotene desaturase
      Lycopene
      Lycopene-beta-cyclase
       -carotene
      (vitamin A precursor)
    • Genetics and Genomics
      MAS for whitefly resistance
    • Cassava informatics
      • White paper on cassava information resources in collaboration with IITA and DOW. Draft circulated to the community in early April
      • Analysis of Sanger + 454 sequences from CIAT-RIKEN biotic stress full length cDNAlibraries
      Previously developed genetic maps
    • CIAT Cassava Informatics
      • Sequences cleaned, assembled and annotated
      • To do: integration of 454 and Sanger sequences into single assembly, alignment to reference genome Cassava4, annotation updates
      • Illumina sequencing of AM560-2 (with Yale) to improve reference assembly. Awaiting sequence from Yale's sequencing center
    • There is a rapidly growing gap between our capacity to genotype and our capacity to phenotype
      Phenotyping
      Genotyping
    • Preparing for new challengesof biotic constraints
    • Effects on cassava pest occurrence and severity
      MANAGEMENT FACTORS
      - Larger plantations, monocropping, genetic uniformity (e.g. Brazil)
      - Increased area planted, continuum of cassava farms
      - Changing management practices to meet industrial needs: constant source of roots needed for cost-efficient processing (e.g. overlapping planting dates)
      -- Increased chemical pesticide use/misuse
    • Effects on cassava pest occurrence and severity
      CLIMATE CHANGE
      - Climate changes: rainfall patterns and cycles, warmer temperatures, affect on planting patterns
      Climate change models suggest that the greatest impact on cassava will be from biotic constraints, and much less from abiotic (drought; higher temperatures)
    • Potential distribution of B. tabaci,based on known distribution of Biotype A.
      Source: Herrera et al. (in press)
    • Potential distribution of Cassava Mosaic Disease
      Source: Herrera et al. (in press)
    • Potential distribution of Cassava Green Mite
      Source: Herrera et al. (in press)
    • Source: Herrera et al. (in press)
      Source: Herrera et al. (in press)
      Source: CIAT
    • CIAT Roles
      RISK ASSESSMENT:Lead a global assessment of threats from cassava pests
      MONITORING: Establish comprehensive monitoring with national/international partners
      MANAGEMENT: Establish or strengthen core capacities to meet global pest management needs
      CAPACITY BUILDING: Work with partners for sustainable capacity to respond to pest challenges
    • Expected Impacts of CIAT Research(CIAT Business Plan)
      Increased income from marketing varieties with higher value
      Improved health due to increased macro and micro nutrient components in new varieties
      Reduced health and environmental risk from pesticide use
      Profitability and reduced risk of climate-related shocks
      Reduction in adverse environmental impacts from processing
    • How do we get there?
      Initiation of the Root, Tuber and Banana CGIAR Research Program (RTB-CRP) and rationalized research agenda
      Strengthened ties with IITA
      A comprehensive priority-setting exercise up front
      Aggressively exploit the opportunities to promote cassava’s comparative advantages to donors as a multi-purpose, pro-poor, climate change-resilient crop
      Build headquarters and Asia capacity to, and beyond, minimum critical level
      Build capacity of partners through training and policy advocacy
    • Thank you