Adaptation to climate change and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions through tropical foragesPresentation Transcript
I. RAO, M. PETERS and G. HYMAN “ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE ANDMITIGATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS THROUGH TROPICAL FORAGES”
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) Tropical Forages Program: Vision To feed a global population of 9 billion people by 2050 will require a 70% increase in global food production and a 50% rise in investments in food, agriculture and rural development Demand for livestock products in developing countries has been more than doubled for the past 3 decades Agricultural practices are responsible for approximately 47% of human- generated methane emissions and 58% of nitrous oxide emissions South-east Asia and South America were identified as two major regions for technical mitigation potential (>600 and >800 megatonnes of CO2 eq. per year) CIAT is well positioned to work with ILRI and other partners to generate research evidence on mitigation potential of tropical forage-based crop- livestock systems across regions in the tropics This new evidence can be a game changer to meet the expected demand for livestock products in developing countries (2050)
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) GHG emissions from agriculture
Global warming potential of main meat categories, as well as milk and selected plant products for comparison Product Global warming potential (kg CO2 –eq per kg of product) Beef 12.98 Milk 1.32 Sheep 17.4 Pig 6.35 Poultry 4.57 Bread wheat 0.80 Potato 0.21
Outcome Adaptation waterlogging in days of soil water saturation Maps of current and future waterloggedBrachiaria areas for targeting forage options
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) Theme 1: Adaptation to progressive climate change Outcomes 2012 (as agreed in business plan): Multisite evaluation of Brachiaria grasses in Colombia (3 sites), Nicaragua (2 sites) and Panama (1 site) for tolerance to waterlogging identified 5 Bh accessions with high tolerance and 5 hybrids with moderate tolerance compared with checks Evaluation of 20 forage legume accessions for their tolerance to waterlogging identified 7 accessions with high level of tolerance Field evaluation of 18 Brachiaria grasses for drought tolerance in the Llanos of Colombia identified 4 hybrids that were superior to their parents during dry season
kg MS ha-1 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 BR04/3207 BR06/0584 CIAT 26110 BR04/2069 CIAT 6369 CIAT 16870 BR06/1932 BR02/1794 BR06/1132 CIAT 16880 CIAT 36083 CIAT 16879 BR06/1000 CIAT 26155 BR02/1372 CIAT 16888 BR05/0760 Medium of cuts BR06/0850 CIAT 26181 Moderate level with some Brachiaria hybrids Panama BR06/0387 BR06/1454 CIAT 26145 Higher level observed with B. humidicola accessions CIAT 16890 CIAT 26159 CIAT 26411 CIAT 26427 CIAT 16891 CIAT 6133 CIAT 26151 CIAT 26430 CIAT 679 CIAT 26570 Waterlogging tolerant Brachiaria genotypes in
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) (Tropical Forages Program: Activity Plan – 2013-2015)1.1 Adapted Farming systems to changing climate conditions (Milestone) Activity (Region / Year) DeliverablesBrachiaria grasses and tropical forage • Five Brachiaria grasses and two tropical foragelegumes tolerant to drought or legumes that are adapted to changing climate andwaterlogging are integrated into production market conditions developedsystems (LAC, plus SEA, EA / 2013) • Field testing of two selected forage options in systemsMulti-site field evaluation and system • Performance of new Brachiaria grasses and tropicalintegration of Brachiaria grasses and forage legumes at production system level quantifiedtropical forage legumes for drought and • A journal article publishedwaterlogging (LAC, plus SEA, EA / 2014)Role of drought and/or waterlogging • A summary report made available;tolerant Brachiaria grasses and tropical • A policy brief developed for adapting forage-basedforage legumes in improving adaptive systems to climate changecapacity of forage-based systemsdetermined using socially and gender-disaggregated participatory methods(Global / 2015)
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) Theme 3: Pro-poor climate change mitigation Outcomes 2012 (as agreed in business plan): Genetic variability in biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) was observed among 122 hybrids of Brachiaria humidicola under field conditions at Popayan Field evaluations of BNI activity in soil among native savanna, improved and degraded pastures in 9 farms across the Llanos of Colombia indicated high BNI activity in long-term B. humidicola pastures Field evaluations of carbon accumulation in soil (up to 100 cm depth) among native savanna, improved and degraded pastures in 9 farms across the Llanos of Colombia confirmed previous observations by showing 1 to 3 t/ha/year of soil C accumulation in improved pastures compared to native savanna
Genotypic differences in soil nitrification rates in plots of B. humidicola hybrids at Popayán, Cauca. [NO2--N (mg/Kg soil/day)] Controls Nitrification rate Genotype www.ciat.cgiar.org Eco-Efficient Agriculture for the Poor
Para averiguar:cuales opciones dereducción deemisiones oacumulación decarbono sonatractivas(factibles).
Deforestación y cambio en el uso de la tierra: cambio en las reservas de C Estimación de las emisiones Cambio ∆C Área de de las Paisaje cambios reservas de C Cambio de las DATOS DE LA FACTOR DE reservas de C ACTIVIDAD EMISIONES en el paisaje Área de Cambios de la (t C año-1) cambios entre reserva de C la cobertura entre la del suelo 1 y cobertura del la 2 (ha) suelo 1 y la 2 (t C ha-1)http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol4.html
Cambios de uso de la Reservas de Carbono Costos y Beneficios:tierraTeledetecccion y Estudios de suelos: Equipo Encuesta CIAT-Corpoicaentrevistas con Aracely “Baseline”agricultores ¿Cómo es la estructura del manual?
Figura 5. Ejemplo del tipode información enviada porlos productoresparticipantes en el proyectode secuestro de carbono(izquierda) en 2011, eincorporación de estainformación al SIG (derecha).
Figura 6. Sistema en línea mostrando límites y parcelas de fincas participantes enel estudio de secuestro de C en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, en 2011.
Figura 7. Aplicación para hacer encuestas en línea y registrar notas sobre parcelasindividuales y otras partes de la finca.
T3: Pro-poor climate change mitigation: C sequestration at the Llanos Orientales (2011) 180 Results: Improved pasture Pasto Mejorado 160 Improved pasture (degraded) Pasto mejorado degradado Higher C stocks in well Native Savanna Sabana Nativa Almacenamiento ha-1C (t ha-1) 140 managed improved pastures 120 Higher potential of C C stock (t de ) 100 accumulation in 80 Puerto Gaitán (higher precipitation ?) 60 40 20 0 (a) Puerto López (b) Puerto Gaitán (c) Average Promedio
Precio Internacional de Carbono
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) (Tropical Forages Program: Activity Plan – 2013-2015)3.3 Test and identify desirable on-farm practices and their landscape-level implications (Milestone) Activity (Region / Year) DeliverablesTesting potential of tropical forage options to • Nitrification inhibition, N2O emission and Cmitigate climate change through reducing N2O sequestration potential of pasture based systemsand methane (CH4) emissions and enhancing C (natural, and degraded and improved pastures) definedsequestration (LAC, potential SEA / 2013) • Potential for reduced CH4 emissions through improved forages quantifiedDeploying and learning of the potential of • N2O emission and C sequestration potential of foragetropical forage options to mitigate climate based systems including trees and shrubs quantifiedchange through reducing N2O and CH4 • Potential for reduced CH4 emissions through improvedemissions and enhancing C sequestration (LAC, forages definedpotential SEA / 2014) • A journal article published on application of forage based mitigation options in systemsA tool developed to analyze trade-offs of • Costs and benefits of different forage-based mitigationforage-based mitigation strategies in terms of strategies analyzed at landscape levelsocial (including gender), economic and • A report made availableenvironmental aspects at landscape level • A policy brief developed on mitigation potential of(Global / 2015) forage-based agricultural systems
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) Tropical Forages Program: Challenges Develop suitability atlas for brachiaria grasses in the tropics Spatial analysis showing the benefits for breeding for individual and combined stress factors of drought and waterlogging Multi-site evaluation of tropical forage options (grasses and legumes) for their tolerance to drought and waterlogging with farmer participation (including gender analysis) across regions (Africa, Asia, LAC) – CCAFS baseline sites? Determining the role of stress adapted tropical forages in improving adaptive capacity of forage-based crop-livestock systems using socially and gender- disaggregated participatory methods Standardized protocols for quantifying soil carbon accumulation, and methane and nitrous oxide emissions Research evidence on mitigation potential of improved forage options in forage-based crop-livestock systems across the tropics Develop strategies for using payment / compensation for ecosystem services as incentives to enhance adoption and management of improved forage options
CRP7: Climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS) Tropical Forages Program: Opportunities Expansion of CCAFS into LAC as an additional focus area Improved capacity in DAPA Research Area for suitability mapping, crop and system modeling, socio-economic and gender analysis, and policy implications Expanded tropical forage research capability in the regions Experience of CATIE (CRP1.2), CIPAV and other partners on silvopstoral systems New strategy of SOILS Research Area with systems perspective at farm and landscape levels Multiple stress tolerant forage and crop options from the Agrobiodiversity Research Area