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Wairegi - Exploring the scope of fertilizer use in the East African region

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, …

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Exploring the scope of fertilizer use in the East African region Wairegi, L.W., van Asten, P.J.A.
  • 2. Introduction● Data sources: FAOSTAT 2008/2009, AMITSA, personal communication.● Moisture content: Maize (14%), Beans (12%), Banana (84%), Cassava (62%), Rice (12%), Coffee (12%)● Nutrient recovery: 50% for N, 15% for P and 60% for K of fertilizer applied
  • 3. Proportion of arable land under crops (%) Burundi DRC Kenya Rwanda Uganda TanzaniaMaize 13 22 33 11 13 30Beans 24 3 15 26 14 12Bananas 31 5 2 27 27 8Cassava 7 28 1 11 6 10Rice 3 6 0* 1 2 8Coffee 2 1 3 3 5 1Total 80 65 54 79 67 69 * 0.4% Rice refers to paddy rice
  • 4. Nutrients (kg) required to produce 1t edible DM yield Residue Edible yield 120 90 Nitrogen 60 30 0 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Coffee 8 6Phosphorus 4 2 0 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Coffee 120 90Potassium 60 30 0 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Coffee
  • 5. Fertilizer (Kg) required to replenish nutrients taken up (for 1t edibledrymatter) 1000 Urea TSP Muriate of potash 800 600 400 200 0 Maize Beans banana cassava Rice Coffee
  • 6. Yields and estimated nutrients in edible yield in the region Yield N P K Total (t/ha) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (kg) Maize 1.0 18 4.2 7 29 Beans 0.6 27 2.2 17 46 Bananas 1.0* 11 1.2 31 43 Cassava 2.8 21 3.0 33 56 Rice 2.3 30 5.9 6 42 Coffee 0.5 13 1.0 11 24 *Burundi not included Averages for 2008 and 2009 Reference: FAOSTAT, 2011
  • 7. Examples of inputs used in the region Burundi DRC Kenya Rwanda Uganda TanzaniaFertilizer 0.6 0.1 50.6 3.4 0.8 7.5consumption(kg/ ha arable land)
  • 8. Prices!
  • 9. Average prices (USD) of 1t edible yield (dry matter)4000 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Arabica coffee300020001000 0 Burundi DRC Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda
  • 10. Fertilizer prices (USD) Burundi DRC* Kenya Rwanda Uganda TanzaniaUrea 754 1250 534 540 712 563TSP 1000 1250 806 675 853 773MOP 1000 1250 705 567 853 773 * South Kivu
  • 11. Ratio between price of 1t edible yield and cost of fertilizer a) Based on total above ground biomass 10 Burundi DRC Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda 8 6 4 2 0 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Coffee *Robusta coffee 1.3 in DRC and 2.0 in Uganda
  • 12. Ratio between price of 1t edible yield and cost of fertilizer b) Based on nutrients removed in edible yield 20 burundi DRC kenya rwanda tanzania uganda 15 10 5 0 Maize Beans Banana Cassava Rice Coffee *Robusta coffee 4.3 in DRC and 7.6 in Uganda
  • 13. How change in crop price affects ratio Rice 6 a) Burundi Arabica coffee Banana 4 Beans Cassava 2 MaizePrice of 01t yield/Fertilizer 0 50 100 150 200 250cost Arabica coffee, Rice 6 b) Uganda Robusta coffee 4 Banana Beans, Cassava 2 Maize 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Price of 1t yield (% of average)
  • 14. How change in fertilizer price affects ratio a) Burundi 8 Rice 6 Arabica coffee Banana 4 Beans, Cassava 2 MaizePrice of 01t yield/ 0 50 100 150 200 250Fertilizercost b) Uganda 8 Arabica coffee, Rice 6 Robusta coffee Banana 4 Beans, Cassava 2 Maize 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Cost of fertilizer required for 1t yield (% of average)
  • 15. If beans fix 50% N and residues are retained in field… Fixed N by bean crop yielding 1t can meet requirements for: 0.5 0.4 0.3Yield(t/ha) 0.2 0.1 0 Maize Banana Cassava Rice Coffee
  • 16. Conclusion and outlook● Coffee and rice are the best for use of mineral fertilizer and maize is the worst – this seems contrary to the current practice!● Fertilizer use is attractive in countries with “cheap” fertilizer (for farmers) compared with countries where fertilizer is more expensive. Investigate cost-effectiveness of subsidies at a national level.● This study is a simplified approach for exploratory purpose -> however, ISFM and crop mixtures can improve efficiency/profitability● There is need and scope for fertilizer use in the East African region, but choice of crop for intensification, and decision on amount and type of fertilizer should depend on input/output prices, crop residue management, and crop response.
  • 17. Conclusions and outlook● Need to fine-tune mapping of “economic” benefits of fertilizer use amongst crop within the countries, as function of spatial variation of input/output prices.● Need to equip farmers with simple decision support tools that can aid in making decisions on what crop to intensify in, type of inputs to use, management practices
  • 18. THANK YOULast slide and sign offThis slide is a custom slide for use only as the last slide inany presentation.You can copy and paste this slide in the Slide Sorter View.Replace this text with your own.