Challenges and solutions for the improvement of seed systems for clonally propagated crops in Eastern and Central Africa A...
Poster presentations <ul><li>Micropropagation and in vitro radio sensitivity test in Congolese Cassava ( Manihot esculenta...
Talk Overview <ul><li>Importance of vegetative crops </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>...
Some stats
Yield gains <ul><li>What measures success? </li></ul><ul><li>Relative changes </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of trends <...
A seed system <ul><li>A successful seed system demonstrates a continuum from breeder to markets </li></ul><ul><li>But main...
What is implicit in a talk on a seed system <ul><li>Any system that provides a farmer access to planting material...... </...
Characteristics of seed systems in developing countries <ul><li>True seed </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial, certified </li></u...
Some key questions for viable/commercial seed sector – the business case <ul><li>How often can I expect a new variety to b...
Going to scale <ul><li>Breeder materials </li></ul>Farmer saved seed Phases  of multiplication <ul><li>Characteristics </l...
As a seed producer, who am I <ul><li>A breeder/researcher/private company </li></ul><ul><li>I’m into tissue culture </li><...
Challenges – a farmer’s perspective <ul><li>Challenge 1: Demonstrable benefit for using healthy seed of improved varieties...
Challenge 1: Demonstrable benefit <ul><li>Demonstration trials on seed value </li></ul><ul><li>New varieties </li></ul><ul...
New varieties - Late blight resistance and benefit
Pest pressure in seed – virus accumulation
Major pests associated with vegetative seed <ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Banana Xanthonas Wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Nemat...
Challenge 2: Acceptable risk as a seed producer <ul><li>Quality assurance on bought seed of an affordable price </li></ul>...
The KASPPA example <ul><li>A farmers’ potato seed association in Kapchora, Eastern Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>In early stage...
Challenge 3: Acceptable risk as a food crop producer  <ul><li>Quality assurance on bought seed of an affordable price </li...
In considering on cassava production <ul><li>At one level the crop of food security, but low $ value: </li></ul><ul><li>Lo...
Challenge 4: Enabling policy & regulation, societal factors and commercial sector <ul><li>Enabling policy & regulation: Th...
The role of National Plant Protection Organisations <ul><li>NPPOs have a different mandate to research entities and by con...
Some solutions
Multiplication methods - high tech <ul><li>Aeroponics for Irish and sweet potato </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue culture for bana...
Multiplication methods – small scale <ul><li>Fleecing for virus protection </li></ul><ul><li>High density planting, small ...
Multiplication - commercial <ul><li>High-grade private seed production at 3000 masl., Timau, Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>KASPP...
The KASPPA example – quality must be in the name <ul><li>Pest status </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of tubers per bag </li></ul...
Breeding - Cassava Mosaic Disease <ul><li>A devastating disease of the 1990s that spread across all of Africa </li></ul><u...
Working with pest risk in vegetative seed – The GLCI example <ul><li>Key to implementing pest monitoring schemes is the ba...
Cassava Brown Streak Disease An illusive disease
GLCI & risk proofing to CBSVs <ul><li>Based on a Pest Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Recognises receiving environments of...
Pest Surveillance – CBSD in DR Congo <ul><li>Community surveillance for CBSV in DR Congo </li></ul><ul><li>To establish if...
Smarter pest diagnostics <ul><li>The difference between research and testing for named pests </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of te...
Field pest diagnostics <ul><li>How to place these system in the decision-makers hands </li></ul><ul><li>Linking diagnostic...
Laboratory pest diagnostics <ul><li>Real-time PCR/generic formats </li></ul><ul><li>High throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Qual...
The example of KEPHIS as a NPPO <ul><li>Identified as a leader for NPPOs in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic capaci...
Community values – as strong as the weakest link <ul><li>Farmer associations and collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Consu...
Summary of major challenges and way forward <ul><li>Demonstration to farmers that quality seed provides better yields and ...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Ndofunsu Aime Diamuini :  African Research Center on Bananas and Plantains (CARBAP) </li></ul><ul...
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Smith - Challenges and solutions for the improvement of seed systems for clonally propagated crops in Eastern and Central Africa

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Smith - Challenges and solutions for the improvement of seed systems for clonally propagated crops in Eastern and Central Africa

  1. 1. Challenges and solutions for the improvement of seed systems for clonally propagated crops in Eastern and Central Africa Aime Diamuini Elmar Schulte-Geldermann Julian Smith Danny Coyne
  2. 2. Poster presentations <ul><li>Micropropagation and in vitro radio sensitivity test in Congolese Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ) accession </li></ul><ul><li>Production of virus free sweetpotato planting material using horticultural fleece </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to overcome the shortage of quality potato seed in Eastern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Seed Potato Selection - a low cost knowledge based intervention to improve potato yields in Eastern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing risk and management options for multiplication and movement of cassava in the face of CBSD: the experience of the Great Lakes Cassava Initiative </li></ul>
  3. 3. Talk Overview <ul><li>Importance of vegetative crops </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potato </li></ul><ul><li>Irish potato </li></ul><ul><li>Some challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Some solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Way forward </li></ul><ul><li>[There is not a one-fit for all seed systems for vegetative crops, but some generic traits are evident] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some stats
  5. 5. Yield gains <ul><li>What measures success? </li></ul><ul><li>Relative changes </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of trends </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of pest impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of breeding success </li></ul><ul><li>Is yield a good indicator of what is needed </li></ul>
  6. 6. A seed system <ul><li>A successful seed system demonstrates a continuum from breeder to markets </li></ul><ul><li>But mainly we think of seed production – and this is where many of our problems start </li></ul><ul><li>Success lies in the risk acceptance about the linkages and in iterative feedback and learning </li></ul>Breeding Seed prod. Crop prod. Processing Markets
  7. 7. What is implicit in a talk on a seed system <ul><li>Any system that provides a farmer access to planting material...... </li></ul><ul><li>that is of better quality and/or of a different variety than that planted in the season before and delivers benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Implied..... About making the link with breeder material and going to scale (commercialisation) with a improved variety (recommended variety) with a market in mind </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of seed systems in developing countries <ul><li>True seed </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial, certified </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Low heritability for pest </li></ul><ul><li>Small and portable </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative ‘seed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Informal – home saved, neighbour, not certified </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically stable </li></ul><ul><li>High heritability for pest </li></ul><ul><li>Large and bulky </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some key questions for viable/commercial seed sector – the business case <ul><li>How often can I expect a new variety to be released and/or a consumer market trend to emerge that pulls demand for a different variety </li></ul><ul><li>How frequently will pest pressure in seed motivate a farmer to replenish </li></ul><ul><li>What volume will farmers’ require </li></ul><ul><li>What price is viable to them and to me i.e. what cost can the production chain support </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to invest and accept risk </li></ul><ul><li>[Probably the most important slide of the talk] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Going to scale <ul><li>Breeder materials </li></ul>Farmer saved seed Phases of multiplication <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Low volume to high volume </li></ul><ul><li>High cost to low(er) cost </li></ul><ul><li>Low-zero pest tolerance to some tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Moving from institutional public good </li></ul><ul><li>To private sector venture </li></ul><ul><li>To farmer owned </li></ul><ul><li>To community valued </li></ul>Production and market pull
  11. 11. As a seed producer, who am I <ul><li>A breeder/researcher/private company </li></ul><ul><li>I’m into tissue culture </li></ul><ul><li>I’m into raised beds, small plots, screenhouse systems </li></ul><ul><li>I’m in the field </li></ul><ul><li>As a farmer and a commercial player </li></ul><ul><li>I’m into raised beds, small plots, screenhouse systems </li></ul><ul><li>I’m in the field </li></ul><ul><li>As a farmer saving home-seed </li></ul><ul><li>I’m into raised beds, small plots </li></ul><ul><li>I’m in the field </li></ul>
  12. 12. Challenges – a farmer’s perspective <ul><li>Challenge 1: Demonstrable benefit for using healthy seed of improved varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge 2: Acceptable risk as a seed producer (investing in seed) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge 3: Acceptable risk as a crop producer (investing in seed) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge 4: Enabling policy, regulation, societal factors and commercial sector </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenge 1: Demonstrable benefit <ul><li>Demonstration trials on seed value </li></ul><ul><li>New varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Pest build up (not genetic degeneration as with true seed) </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted primarily at crop producer </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated production benefits to farmers better positioned to take on seed production </li></ul><ul><li>Land, risk acceptance, market access, infrastructure </li></ul>
  14. 14. New varieties - Late blight resistance and benefit
  15. 15. Pest pressure in seed – virus accumulation
  16. 16. Major pests associated with vegetative seed <ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Banana Xanthonas Wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>CBSD </li></ul><ul><li>CMD </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul><ul><li>Ralstonia solanacearum </li></ul><ul><li>viruses (PVY, PLRV..) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potato </li></ul><ul><li>viruses (SPVD....) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Challenge 2: Acceptable risk as a seed producer <ul><li>Quality assurance on bought seed of an affordable price </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and timeliness of seed availability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of other inputs, fertilizer, pesticides to protect seed outlay </li></ul><ul><li>Access to credit on terms that are acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of market demand by/linkages in place with crop producers </li></ul><ul><li>Note – I’m probably not the ‘poorest-of-the-poor, but I will be able to leverage community gains that benefit this group </li></ul>
  18. 18. The KASPPA example <ul><li>A farmers’ potato seed association in Kapchora, Eastern Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>In early stages bought seed infected with bacterial wilt and of unspecified seed size </li></ul><ul><li>Decision if to ‘stop’ for seed or ‘grow on’ for ware </li></ul><ul><li>Learnt about quality assurance on pests and importance of seed size </li></ul>
  19. 19. Challenge 3: Acceptable risk as a food crop producer <ul><li>Quality assurance on bought seed of an affordable price </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and timeliness of seed availability </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of other inputs, fertilizer, pesticides to protect seed outlay </li></ul><ul><li>Access to credit on terms that are acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of market demand by/linkages in place with consumer markets </li></ul><ul><li>Note – I’m not likely to be, but could be, the ‘poorest-of-the-poor’, but I will be able to leverage community gains that benefit this group </li></ul>
  20. 20. In considering on cassava production <ul><li>At one level the crop of food security, but low $ value: </li></ul><ul><li>Low fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Piecemeal harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>At another level at crop of processing value: </li></ul><ul><li>Flour </li></ul><ul><li>Chips </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel </li></ul><ul><li>A viable cassava seed system is dependent on the latter markets </li></ul>
  21. 21. Challenge 4: Enabling policy & regulation, societal factors and commercial sector <ul><li>Enabling policy & regulation: The role of NPPOs </li></ul><ul><li>Trading as seed and the need for certification </li></ul><ul><li>Setting pest tolerance standards that are attainable </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to implement certification </li></ul><ul><li>Extension and pest awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipating pest events and prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Societal factors </li></ul><ul><li>Control of outbreak diseases and coherent action </li></ul><ul><li>Separation distances and other sanitation measures for seed production </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for collective action of farmer groups </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial sector </li></ul><ul><li>Needing to fit into the receiving environment </li></ul>
  22. 22. The role of National Plant Protection Organisations <ul><li>NPPOs have a different mandate to research entities and by consequence are less eligible for donor funding </li></ul><ul><li>Currently a mismatch between policies and pest standards for seed and capability to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Key role in preventing major pest outbreaks </li></ul>NaCRRI 2011 GLCI workshop on CBSV testing targeted NPPOs
  23. 23. Some solutions
  24. 24. Multiplication methods - high tech <ul><li>Aeroponics for Irish and sweet potato </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue culture for banana and cassava </li></ul><ul><li>Zero pest tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>100% variety authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses critical early stage shortages </li></ul>
  25. 25. Multiplication methods – small scale <ul><li>Fleecing for virus protection </li></ul><ul><li>High density planting, small scale seed </li></ul><ul><li>Positive selection </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (pest, authenticity) tolerances </li></ul>
  26. 26. Multiplication - commercial <ul><li>High-grade private seed production at 3000 masl., Timau, Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>KASPPA – Ugandan community farmer group set up a seed producer </li></ul><ul><li>Production in ‘non-traditional’ environments </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (pest, authenticity) tolerances </li></ul>
  27. 27. The KASPPA example – quality must be in the name <ul><li>Pest status </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of tubers per bag </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability </li></ul>
  28. 28. Breeding - Cassava Mosaic Disease <ul><li>A devastating disease of the 1990s that spread across all of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Good resistance breed for and widespread adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Now a disease under control </li></ul>
  29. 29. Working with pest risk in vegetative seed – The GLCI example <ul><li>Key to implementing pest monitoring schemes is the balance between testing cost, scale, detection threshold, reliability and making a difference </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cassava Brown Streak Disease An illusive disease
  31. 31. GLCI & risk proofing to CBSVs <ul><li>Based on a Pest Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Recognises receiving environments of planting material i.e. free, low or high CBSV </li></ul><ul><li>A regional, coherent approach </li></ul>Field testing Lab testing
  32. 32. Pest Surveillance – CBSD in DR Congo <ul><li>Community surveillance for CBSV in DR Congo </li></ul><ul><li>To establish if a area is low to free of CBSV </li></ul><ul><li>More immediate and informing the decision-making </li></ul>
  33. 33. Smarter pest diagnostics <ul><li>The difference between research and testing for named pests </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of testing </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of method –level of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness of result </li></ul><ul><li>Changing what happens </li></ul>
  34. 34. Field pest diagnostics <ul><li>How to place these system in the decision-makers hands </li></ul><ul><li>Linking diagnostics with the seed suppliers and the farmers </li></ul>Developing LAMP assays for CBSV for detection in the field
  35. 35. Laboratory pest diagnostics <ul><li>Real-time PCR/generic formats </li></ul><ul><li>High throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance – Proficiency Testing Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>National capacity </li></ul>
  36. 36. The example of KEPHIS as a NPPO <ul><li>Identified as a leader for NPPOs in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic capacity </li></ul><ul><li>PRA capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection capacity </li></ul>KEPHIS, breaking ground in phytosanitary measures
  37. 37. Community values – as strong as the weakest link <ul><li>Farmer associations and collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers buying for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of disease reservoirs due to poor practices </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas on separation distances e.g. cassava and CBSD </li></ul><ul><li>Pest vigalance </li></ul>
  38. 38. Summary of major challenges and way forward <ul><li>Demonstration to farmers that quality seed provides better yields and that this translates into profit </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate pest standards </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring pests within seed and providing quality assurance carried by the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness for new or emergent pest </li></ul><ul><li>Market dynamics for commercial pull for quality seed of preferred varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Community action for coherent outcomes </li></ul>
  39. 39. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Ndofunsu Aime Diamuini : African Research Center on Bananas and Plantains (CARBAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Schulte-Geldermann Elmar: International Potato Centre (CIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Smith Julian : Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera) </li></ul><ul><li>Danny Coyne : International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) </li></ul>

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