CIALCA interventions for productivity increase of cropping system components in the African Great Lakes zone   CIALCA conf...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
Major farming systems in SSA Cassava-based Banana-based + maize-based in Eastern Rwanda Smallholder production systems in ...
Small farms (typically less than 0.5 ha per household), large families (5-10 children), inherently low soil fertility, mix...
Poor soils with often low pH, deficient in N, P, K and Mg, and with low CEC Frequent low K concentrations in banana leaves...
Poor soils with often low pH, deficient in N, P, K and Mg, and with low CEC Severe P deficiency in fields grown with legum...
Complex system of different production units (livestock and crops) A range of crops are grown in different small fields (u...
Limited availability of manure and crop residues for soil fertility improvement Nyagatare, Eastern Rwanda Lurhala, Sud-Kiv...
Constraints on financial and physical access to mineral fertilizer Seed and fertilizer “kiosque” in Luhihi, DR Congo Agrov...
Poor road infrastructure and market organisation limits income generation from agriculture and re-investment in soil ferti...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) to bridge yield gaps… A set of soil fertility management practices that necess...
Integrated Soil Fertility Management Yield/
Focus on agronomic efficiency: maximizing returns on investment  by maximizing yield at a given nutrient application rate…...
Improved  banana and legume  germplasm Efficient use of  mineral fertilizer Optimized organic matter management Targeting ...
Soil fertility major issue on granite and quartzite soils (e.g. Butare) Crop management suboptimal -> room to improve crop...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
Improved germplasm: what traits desired by farmes and/or researchers? <ul><li>increased yield under low input  (local cond...
Yield under low input:  significant improvements are possible… Example for soybean yields in Kabamba, Sud-Kivu: some impro...
Exotic, improved and local  Musa  germplasm evaluation at 18 sites across  Rwanda, Burundi and DR Congo. An altitude effec...
Tolerance to biotic stresses in banana Mitigating the impact of biotic constraints  to build resilient  Musa  production s...
<ul><li>Training of and management by the farmer associations </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements on physiology, adaptation  (d...
Participatory evaluation and selection of varieties with farmer groups System components: germplasm
Musa  germplasm participatory evaluation and selection of varieties with farmer groups IMPORTANT BANANA TRAITS Agronomic t...
Selection of varieties with traits important for soil fertility SB24 AND10 Varieties with high biomass yield and low N har...
Performance of OPV maize varieties in Sud-Kivu, DR Congo Also improved cassava and maize varieties identified  (intercropp...
Performance of improved cassava varieties in Bas-Congo, DR Congo Local variety, severely affected by CMD Improved variety ...
Making new varieties available to farmers… The introduction of improved germplasm is closely linked with capacity building...
Banana and plantain are slow-growing vegetatively propagated crops.  They do not produce planting material readily.  Tissu...
The sheaths are removed individually in order to expose the buds at the v-end of each sheath. A clump of plantlets regener...
 Screening for drought tolerant Musa varieties K.U.Leuven, Belgium / IITA-Uganda Characterization, development and evalua...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
Current use: data from the CIALCA baseline Average = 10% of all households Average quantity = 9-14 kg ha -1 System compone...
Fertilizer use in bush beans (Eastern Rwanda) System components: efficient fertilizer use
without fertilizer with fertilizer (2 bags of NPK ha -1 ) CIALCA trials in Kabamba, Sud-Kivu, DR Congo. Fertilizer use in ...
Fertilizer use in cassava (Bas-Congo) 2-3 fold increase in storage root yield and net benefits Benefit-cost ratio > 2, des...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
Virtually all households use manure or compost but amounts applied are small.  Organic matter is scarce! Hence, there is n...
Combining soybean rotation and mixed addition of DAP and FYM increases yield and fertilizer AE.  Principles of ISFM confir...
Mulching 1 – thin mulch layer already conserves a lot more moisture 2- soil nutrient stocks increase with quantity of mulc...
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
<ul><li>On-farm assessment of existing densities  and  factors that influence plant density  and yield in banana fields. <...
<ul><li>On station research on the optimal plant density, resource competition  and yield when considering soil type and c...
<ul><li>Key findings: Farmer’s practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The variation in plant density was found to follow agro-eco...
Density trials: Efficiency of the system  Maximum annual bunch yields varied by site  Recommendations will be formulated f...
Intercropping arrangements    CIALCA System components: adapted agronomic measures
<ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrat...
<ul><li>Increased productivity will require  investments in nutrients  to improve and sustain soil fertility. The use of m...
Merci  Thanks Merci Thanks
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Pypers/Blomme - CIALCA interventions for productivity increase of cropping system components in the African Great Lakes zone

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Pypers/Blomme - CIALCA interventions for productivity increase of cropping system components in the African Great Lakes zone

  1. 1. CIALCA interventions for productivity increase of cropping system components in the African Great Lakes zone CIALCA conference, Kigali 24 Oct 2011 P. Pypers 1 , W. Bimponda 2 , E. Birachi 3 , K. Bishikwabo 4 , G. Blomme 5 , S. Carpentier 6 , A. Gahigi 7 , S. Gaidashova 7 , J. Jefwa 1 , S. Kantengwa 4 , J.P. Kanyaruguru 8 , P. Lepoint 9 , J.P. Lodi-Lama 4 , M. Manzekele 2 , S. Mapatano 10 , R. Merckx 6 , T. Ndabamenye 7 , T. Ngoga 7 , J.J. Nitumfuidi 2 , C. Niyuhire 11 , J. Ntamwira 2 , E. Ouma 12 , J.M. Sanginga 4 , C. Sivirihauma 13 , R. Swennen 6 , P. van Asten 14 , B. Vanlauwe 1 , N. Vigheri 15 , and J.M. Walangululu 16
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  3. 3. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  4. 4. Major farming systems in SSA Cassava-based Banana-based + maize-based in Eastern Rwanda Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  5. 5. Small farms (typically less than 0.5 ha per household), large families (5-10 children), inherently low soil fertility, mixed cropping systems (with grain legumes as most common intercrop), increasingly less fallow periods. Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  6. 6. Poor soils with often low pH, deficient in N, P, K and Mg, and with low CEC Frequent low K concentrations in banana leaves, corresponding with yield losses In bananas… K deficiency Mg deficiency Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  7. 7. Poor soils with often low pH, deficient in N, P, K and Mg, and with low CEC Severe P deficiency in fields grown with legumes (based on DRIS index of maize as test crop), followed by N deficiency, and K in poor soils. In legumes and maize… Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  8. 8. Complex system of different production units (livestock and crops) A range of crops are grown in different small fields (usually a 1-10 ares) with varying management intensity and soil fertility level. Pig stable and ‘compostière’ next to the homestead Banana plantations near homestead Distant fields with sweet potato, cassava and legumes Rented distant fields, maize-legume based Example from Gitega, Burundi Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  9. 9. Limited availability of manure and crop residues for soil fertility improvement Nyagatare, Eastern Rwanda Lurhala, Sud-Kivu, DR Congo Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  10. 10. Constraints on financial and physical access to mineral fertilizer Seed and fertilizer “kiosque” in Luhihi, DR Congo Agrovet in Bukavu, DR Congo Smallholder production systems
  11. 11. Poor road infrastructure and market organisation limits income generation from agriculture and re-investment in soil fertility for food production Smallholder production systems in Central Africa
  12. 12. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  13. 13. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) to bridge yield gaps… A set of soil fertility management practices that necessarily include the use of fertilizer , organic inputs and improved germplasm combined with the knowledge on how to adapt these practices to local conditions , aiming at maximizing agronomic efficiency of the applied nutrients and improving crop productivity. All inputs need to be managed following sound agronomic principles Vanlauwe et al., 2010 Integrated Soil Fertility Management
  14. 14. Integrated Soil Fertility Management Yield/
  15. 15. Focus on agronomic efficiency: maximizing returns on investment by maximizing yield at a given nutrient application rate… (extra yield per unit of nutrients applied) ISFM Integrated Soil Fertility Management
  16. 16. Improved banana and legume germplasm Efficient use of mineral fertilizer Optimized organic matter management Targeting inputs & agronomic measures Integrated Soil Fertility Management Yield/
  17. 17. Soil fertility major issue on granite and quartzite soils (e.g. Butare) Crop management suboptimal -> room to improve crop densities Banana pests only a minor problem at low altitude (<1500m) sites Targeted crop improvement interventions after quantifying yield loss factors through boundary line analysis
  18. 18. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  19. 19. Improved germplasm: what traits desired by farmes and/or researchers? <ul><li>increased yield under low input (local conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>increased response to inputs </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses (diseases, soil acidity, drought,…) </li></ul><ul><li>improved quality of produce (grain size, storability,…) </li></ul><ul><li>farmer-preferred traits (cookability, taste, colour,…) </li></ul><ul><li>maturity period (early-maturing vs. late-maturing) </li></ul><ul><li>vegetative characteristics (self-mulch in bananas, biomass for soil fertility in legumes) </li></ul><ul><li>nutritional quality (biofortification in legumes) </li></ul>System components: germplasm
  20. 20. Yield under low input: significant improvements are possible… Example for soybean yields in Kabamba, Sud-Kivu: some improved varieties give yields that are more than twice as high, relative to the control. System components: germplasm
  21. 21. Exotic, improved and local Musa germplasm evaluation at 18 sites across Rwanda, Burundi and DR Congo. An altitude effect was observed on bunch weight and crop cycle duration. e.g. time from planting to harvest for ‘Mpologoma’ (AAA-EA) was 20.5 months at Karongi (alt. 1,496 m) in Rwanda, and 35 months at Lurhala (alt. 1,981 m) in the DR Congo. System components: germplasm
  22. 22. Tolerance to biotic stresses in banana Mitigating the impact of biotic constraints to build resilient Musa production systems in Central and Eastern Africa ( Rony Swennen et al.) A brief overview of the main banana diseases and pests that threaten the region’s banana production. [Xanthomonas wilt, Fusarium wilt, Banana bunchy top disease, black leaf streak, nematodes and weevils] A wide range of integrated pest and disease management (IPM) technologies has been developed over the past years. High yielding exotic and improved varieties were introduced via the International Transit Centre (ITC), Leuven, Belgium and the first highland banana hybrids originating from IITA/NARO Uganda were tested across the region. These varieties combine higher resistance with higher yields. Rapid and healthy multiplication of banana planting material is key to a vigorous and healthy banana sector. Improved linkages between research, extension, the private sector, and policy makers from farm to regional level is required to improve the productivity and resilience of banana systems. System components: germplasm
  23. 23. <ul><li>Training of and management by the farmer associations </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements on physiology, adaptation (diseases) and yields </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements related to soil fertility issues (biomass production, BNF, resistance to poor soils, response to fertilizer) </li></ul><ul><li>Participative evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of preferred varieties based on above criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Production of varietal cards for promotion ( www.cialca.org ) </li></ul>Participatory evaluation and selection of varieties with farmer groups System components: germplasm
  24. 24. Participatory evaluation and selection of varieties with farmer groups System components: germplasm
  25. 25. Musa germplasm participatory evaluation and selection of varieties with farmer groups IMPORTANT BANANA TRAITS Agronomic traits Sensory traits Plant height Appearance Bunch size Aroma Finger length Texture in hand Cycle Texture in the mouth Resistance to pests Taste System components: germplasm
  26. 26. Selection of varieties with traits important for soil fertility SB24 AND10 Varieties with high biomass yield and low N harvest index result in positive effects on a subsequent maize crop System components: germplasm
  27. 27. Performance of OPV maize varieties in Sud-Kivu, DR Congo Also improved cassava and maize varieties identified (intercropping with legumes) System components: germplasm
  28. 28. Performance of improved cassava varieties in Bas-Congo, DR Congo Local variety, severely affected by CMD Improved variety (Nsansi), resistant to CMD Also improved cassava and maize varieties identified (intercropping with legumes) System components: germplasm
  29. 29. Making new varieties available to farmers… The introduction of improved germplasm is closely linked with capacity building and organizational strengthening of farmer associations to facilitate multiplication and marketing of seed within their communities. Important …..seed multiplication requires linkages with markets and promotion. Farmers must be able to sell seed! System components: germplasm
  30. 30. Banana and plantain are slow-growing vegetatively propagated crops. They do not produce planting material readily. Tissue culture is one way of producing healthy planting material rapidly but it requires expensive laboratory equipment, electricity and technical skills. Macro-propagation is an alternative method for producing and rapidly multiplying healthy planting material that is cost effective, affordable and can be done in villages. System components: germplasm
  31. 31. The sheaths are removed individually in order to expose the buds at the v-end of each sheath. A clump of plantlets regenerated from bud sprouts. 16 to 30 plantlets are obtained in 10 to 18 weeks. Paring of sucker Plantlets detached from mother corm in germination chamber for acclimatization (1 to 2 months). Detached plantlets with no root is taken to root initiation chamber. Field planting is after acclimatization. The meristem is scarified and the corm is placed in treated sawdust in the germination chamber. Corm in germination chamber, under 50% shade structure. Regular watering is required. The sawdust is removed to expose the shoot bases. The shoots are cut above the collar and the meristem excised to induce production of secondary bud sprouts. Labeling is very important. Making new varieties available to farmers… Macro-propagation
  32. 32.  Screening for drought tolerant Musa varieties K.U.Leuven, Belgium / IITA-Uganda Characterization, development and evaluation of adapted Musa germplasm.  The heterotrophic in vitro model enables to select different phenotypes within a same genetic background Screenhouse model (collaboration with IITA-Uganda) System components: germplasm
  33. 33. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  34. 34. Current use: data from the CIALCA baseline Average = 10% of all households Average quantity = 9-14 kg ha -1 System components: efficient fertilizer use
  35. 35. Fertilizer use in bush beans (Eastern Rwanda) System components: efficient fertilizer use
  36. 36. without fertilizer with fertilizer (2 bags of NPK ha -1 ) CIALCA trials in Kabamba, Sud-Kivu, DR Congo. Fertilizer use in cassava System components: efficient fertilizer use
  37. 37. Fertilizer use in cassava (Bas-Congo) 2-3 fold increase in storage root yield and net benefits Benefit-cost ratio > 2, despite high fertilizer prices System components: efficient fertilizer use   Kiduma   Mbuela   Rate Storage root yield Net benefits BCR Storage root yield Net benefits BCR (kg K ha -1 ) (t ha -1 ) ($ ha -1 ) ($ $ -1 ) (t ha -1 ) ($ ha -1 ) ($ $ -1 ) 0K 12.7 2493 5.6 10.5 2060 5.4 40K 23.7 4667 5.7 14.9 2744 4.3 120K 31.4 5829 4.5 19.6 3245 3.2 200K 39.6 7094 4.0   18.6 2435 2.2
  38. 38. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  39. 39. Virtually all households use manure or compost but amounts applied are small. Organic matter is scarce! Hence, there is need for optimizing use efficiency. System components: optimized organic matter management
  40. 40. Combining soybean rotation and mixed addition of DAP and FYM increases yield and fertilizer AE. Principles of ISFM confirmed in E-Rwanda: OM improves AE of fertilizer System components: optimized organic matter management
  41. 41. Mulching 1 – thin mulch layer already conserves a lot more moisture 2- soil nutrient stocks increase with quantity of mulch applied 3- mulch application can triple yields, particularly on poorer soils System components: optimized organic matter management
  42. 42. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  43. 43. <ul><li>On-farm assessment of existing densities and factors that influence plant density and yield in banana fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting zones: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Good soil and high rainfall ( Ruhengeri) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Poor soils and medium rainfall (Butare) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Good soils and low rainfall (Kibungo) </li></ul>System components: adapted agronomic measures
  44. 44. <ul><li>On station research on the optimal plant density, resource competition and yield when considering soil type and climatic characteristics </li></ul>5 densities: 1,428 – 5,000 plants ha -1 3 cultivars Ingaju (cooking) Injagi (cooking) Intuntu (beer) Density Optimal? Productivity (kg ha -1 ) System components: adapted agronomic measures
  45. 45. <ul><li>Key findings: Farmer’s practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The variation in plant density was found to follow agro-ecological classes (soil fertility / rainfall distribution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice of plant density varied with region and depended e.g. on whether the field is to be intercropped </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Density trials: Efficiency of the system Maximum annual bunch yields varied by site Recommendations will be formulated for each agro-ecological zone
  47. 47. Intercropping arrangements  CIALCA System components: adapted agronomic measures
  48. 48. <ul><li>Introduction: considerations for productivity of system components in smallholder farms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management as a framework for improvement of productivity of system components </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity of system components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient fertilizer use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized organic matter management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted agronomic measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>Outline
  49. 49. <ul><li>Increased productivity will require investments in nutrients to improve and sustain soil fertility. The use of mineral fertilizer is imperative but current efforts to make fertilizer available (physical and financial) are minimal. What strategies can be proposed to improve access to fertilizer? </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of improved legume and banana varieties requires investments in seed multiplication at community-level. How can farmer groups or cooperatives specialize and obtain an economical gain from seed production? </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Soil Fertility Management offers technologies that ensure mineral fertilizer is used efficiently and with minimal environmental risks. Successful interventions must acknowledge trade-offs in the use of labour, financial and nutrient resources by farmers. How can knowledge-intensive technologies be disseminated effectively and adjusted to smallholder farmers’ conditions? </li></ul>Conclusion and outlook
  50. 50. Merci Thanks Merci Thanks

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