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Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions?
 

Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions?

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, ...

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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    Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions? Jefwa - Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions? Presentation Transcript

    • Do commercial biological and chemical products increase crop yields and economic returns under smallholder farmer conditions? Challenges for opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the humid highland systems of Sub-Saharan Africa International Conference. Kigali Rwanda Oct 24 -27
    • OUTLINE
      • Background
        • Objectives
        • Approaches
        • Characterization
      • Materials and methods
      • Results and discussion
      • Conclusion and recommendations
      • Acknowledgment
    • BACKGROUND
      • Increase in Agro-products appearing on the market in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA)
      • Some have a proven scientific basis others lack a basis that stands up to scientific scrutiny
      • Effective and safe agricultural new products to add value when applied in the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM)
      • Investment in products to significantly contribute to increasing productivity and income for smallholder farmers in SSA
    • OBJECTIVE
      • Screen and assess the effectiveness of several Commercial agricultural products and seed technologies developed by private companies to optimize and sustain crop yields in diverse agro - ecological zones in SSA, following a rigorous and in-depth scientific appraisal
      • Category I : Rhizobial Inoculants (Biological Nitrogen Fixation) : (22 products)
        • best-bet locally-isolated promiscuous soybean bradyrhizobial strains
        • available commercial inoculants obtained from private companies.
        • Candidate products include selected strains from CIAT-TSBF and IITA, Rhizobium ‘Vault ’ (Becker Underwood, USA) and the inoculum produced at Marondera Research Station, widely used in Zimbabwe and SOYGRO products f rom South Africa.
      CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS
    • CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS
      • Category II: Other (non-rhizobial) microbiological products:
        • Micro-organisms beneficial to plant growth
        • Beneficial through disease suppression
        • II A (8 products): Free living Nitrogen fixation organisms
        • II B (26 products) Bio- enhancers and Biocontrol: Trchorderma, Mycorrhiza, Bacillus
        • II A & B (18 products )
    • CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS
      • Category III: Other non-microbial products and seed treatment s : (18 )
      • These include non-microbial products that stimulate the microbial activity in the rhizosphere, and are so indirectly beneficial to crops. Products containing enzymes or vitamins, seed coating, foliar sprays and soil conditioners
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    • MATERIALS AND METHODS
    • MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of commercial products Green house evaluation Field evaluation Demonstration trials Farmer participatory trials (Adaptation trials) Approach Category 1: products Category 2: products Category 3: products Screening Category 1: 1-2 products Category 2: 1-2 products Category 3: 1-2 products Field assessment in three countries: Kenya Niger Nigeria In each country, different sites in different Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) Assessment and Validation Scaling up Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
    • Screening of new products and technological options
      • Crops selected and site description
      • Kenya : Soy beans, Cowpea, Common beans, Greengrams, Groundnuts, Maize and Tissue culture banana
      • Nigeria : Soybeans, Cowpea, Groundnuts, Maize
      • Ethiopia: Soybeans, Faba bean, Chick pea, Wheat
      Mandate area [action site] AEZ Annual rainfall Common staple and cash crops Siaya (western Kenya) Hot Lowlands (HL): 1100-1500m 700-1900mm     Coffee, tea, sugarcane, cotton, millet, maize, beans, sorghum, sunflower, bananas, cowpea and groundnut Meru South (Central Kenya) Moist Highlands (MH): 600-2500m 500-2700mm     Maize, sorghum, millet, wheat, barley, tea, sunflower, cotton, beans, bananas, Irish potatoes, citrus and pyrethrum Kitale (Rift Valley Kenya) Moist Mid-Highlands (MMH): 1700-2000m 1000-1200mm     Maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, coffee, tea, sunflower and pyrethrum. Isiolo (north-eastern Kenya) Dry Lowlands (DL): <1200m 400-600mm     Maize, millet, beans, onions and tomatoes. Kilifi (Coast of Kenya) Moist and Hot Lowlands (MHL): <250m 500-1200mm   Maize, cotton, cassava, cowpea, banana, cashew nuts, coconuts, citrus, beans, tomatoes and tobacco Maradi (southern Niger) Sahel Savanna (SS)   < 250mm Sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, groundnut, tomato, water melon, potato, and garden egg Kano (northern Nigeria) Sudan Savanna (SuS) 500-1000mm Sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, groundnut, soybean and cotton.   Kaduna-Zaria (central Nigeria) Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS)   900-1250mm Sorghum, maize, rice, soybean, cowpea, groundnut, pepper and sugarcane Mokwa (southern Nigeria) Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS)   1000-1300mm Yam, sorghum, maize, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, cotton, melon and okra. Fashola (southern Nigeria) Derived Savanna (DS) 1150-1700mm Cocoa, cola nut, cassava, yam, maize, cocoyam, plantain, banana, melon, vegetables and cowpea.
    • GREENHOUSE ACTIVITIES RESULTS
    • Greenhouse activities Evaluation of new Rhizobium inoculants in soybean (TGx1740-2F variety) Moses Thuita (PhD student) Control Mineral N Legumefix Biofix Rhizoliq
    • Results and discussion Effect of Rhizobium inoculants in soybean (greenhouse trials)
      • Equal performance in terms of nodulation for some products
      • No effect on biomass yield
      Mosese Thuita (PhD Student)
    • Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student) Rizoliq Mineral N Biofix 899 Biofix 2667 Control Biofix 422 Nodulator Legume- fix Control Mineral N Biofix GN peat Rizoliq
    • Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
    • Greenhouse activities Evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants in other legumes Samuel Mathu (MSc student)
    • FIELD ACTIVITIES Bondo: Demonstration trial block I Edwin Mutegi
    •     Table 1. Performance of CAT- I products on soybean at Jimma (Averaged over all the locations) RR= Recommended Rate EIAR Treatments Grain Yield (t/ha) % yield increase over +ve control % yield increase over – ve control Control (0 kg N + RR P) 1.31 D -28 0 1/2 RD N + Full RR P 1.61 CD -12 23 RR N/P 1.83 BC 0 40 Legumefix + Full RR P 2.28 AB 25 74 TSBF 531 + Full RD P 1.54 CD -16 18 MAR 1495 + Full RR P 2.43 A 33 86 F -test ** CV (%) 26.2
    • Field activities Field work on Cat. I products in soybean
    • On-going field activities MA sol. Maxx New farmer-managed trials: Histick or Legumefix with/without MA sol. Maxx Control Legumefix + MA sol. Maxx
    • Grain yield of legumes crops as affected with CAT-II products in different locations of Nigeria Field Trial Nigeria Product Soybean (Kaya) Cowpea (Mokwa) Groundnut (Shanono) [ Kg ha -1 ] 0P 1961.6 ab 1072.6 b 1774.3 b 20P 2174.7 ab 1601.4 a 1452.6 c 40P 2340.4 a 1512.4 a 1823.3 ab MYCO-TEA 1907.4 ab 1537.4 a 1767.2 b PHC BIOPAK 2342.1 a 1329.3 ab 2146.5 a RHIZATECH 1694.1 b 1445.4 ab 2243.9 a
    • Tissue Culture Bananas under Field Conditions Tissue culture banana field work Coast Nyanza Apparent volume Agnes Kavoo PhD Student
    • No Bunch weight response in Meru South Effect of Products on Yield of TC Banana in Central Kenya Agnes Kavoo PhD Student
    • Category III Products
    • Effect of alternative P formulations on maize shoot and root DM
      • Significant response to mineral P addition in both soils
      • Positive effect of soil conditioner and seed treatment on shoot and root DM, respectively in sandy soil
      • Shoot P uptake significantly increased with soil conditioner, only in sandy soil
    • Effect of P-based products on maize grain yield in Kenya None of the products increased grain yield but significantly higher biomass yield was found with seed P treatment
    • CAT- III products on Wheat at Kulumsa (Averaged over all the locations) EIAR Treatments Biological Yield of 100 plants Yield (Kg/ha) No Input 302.0 3.2 D RD N 309.0 3.3 CD RD N + 1/2 RD P 369.9 3.7 BC RD N/P 375.5 4.1 AB Agroleaf HIgh P + RD N + 1/2 RD P 350.87 4.2 A Turbotop + RD N + 1/2 RD P 382.87 4.0 AB F test * ** CV (%) 12.6
    • On-going field activities Agroblen slow-release fertilizer Cat. III in maize: Confirmation of SR2010 results in DEMO-trials + new products Regular fertilizer (DAP + urea)
    • Economic Valuation
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season)
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season)
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) >30% increase <30% increase 36% 64%
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) Legumefix cost = 13 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) B/C > 2 B/C < 2 48% 52% Legumefix cost = 13 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
    • Progress with field activities Progress with farmer-managed trials on Rhizatech and Legumefix (2 nd season) B/C > 2 B/C < 2 Rhizatech cost = 220 USD ha -1 , soybean grain price = 0.53 USD kg -1 .
    • CONCLUSIONS
      • Effective Cat. I products
      • Previously: Legumefix, Histick and 1495MAR On Soy bean in Kenya and Legumefix and MAR 1495
      • In Ehtiopia
      • Rhizoliq top 2 to be added to the list of effective products.
      • None of the products are currently registration, but process underway for Legumefix and Rhizoliq.
      • No response of Faba bean to inoculation with products
      • Faba bean nodulates wiith Indigenous strains
    • CONCLUSIONS
      • Effective Cat. II products
      • Rhizatech: costly and little effect – should not be promoted in legumes and cereals
      • Rhizatech: significant in one out of three sites in banana.
      • EcoT for Fusarium control in bananas (See Poster by Ruth Muhongo)
      • MycoApply Soluble Maxx: small but positive effect, and profitability to be evaluated
      • Little or no interaction with Cat. I products
    • CONCLUSIONS
      • Effective Cat. III products
      • Previously: Teprosyn and Agroleaf high P.
      • New products under evaluation with potential: Growplus and Agroblen (to be confirmed).
      • Mavuno as a commercial product?
      • Turbotop on Wheat in Ethiopia
    • Acknowledgements
      • We would like to acknowledge CTA for sponsorship to participate in the Conference
      • The Organizing Committee for giving us the opportunity to present and organizing logistics
      • The Audience for Listening
    •