Buruchara - Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D): An Approach to Enhance Small-holder Farmers’ Livelihoods: Experiences from Lake Kivu Region

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, …

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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  • 1. Buruchara, R., M. Tenywa, J.G.M., Majaliwa; W. Chiuri, J. Mugabo, S.O. Nyamwaro, A. Adewale CIALCA International Conference, Kigali, Rwanda , October 24 - 27, 2011 Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D): An Approach to Enhance Small-holder Farmers’ Livelihoods: Experiences from Lake Kivu Region
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • The context
    • The approach of IAR4D
    • Lessons observed
    • Conclusion and way forward
  • 3. SSA CP
    • Objective
    • To facilitate greater impact from agricultural research for development (AR4D) leading to improved rural livelihoods, increased food security and sustainable natural resource management
    • Testing, validating and scaling up integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) premised on innovation systems principles
    • Location :
      • Eastern DRC,
      • South-western Uganda
      • NW Rwanda
    • Bio-physical:
      • Rainfall: 900 – 2000 mm
      • Soils are of volcanic origin
      • Terrain is dominated by steep to very steep slope
      • Small scale agriculture is dominant land-use
    • Political conflict:
  • 5.
    • IAR4D is a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary phased participatory action research approach which pools knowledge for catalyzing innovations to address Market-Technology-NRM-Policy challenges
    • Key Principles
    • Transformation of a linear process (without markets) of research-extension-farmer to an integrated one with markets, policies, private sector playing critical roles in agricultural R&D
    • Innovation Platform (IP) for diagnosing problems, exploring opportunities and investigating and validating solutions
    • Network collective, collaborative interaction among IP actors:
    • Research that addresses key constraints and opportunities agreed by IP actors in the context of entire value chain and research system that is multidisciplinary and participatory
    • Institutional and human capacity building for IAR4D actors to effectively participate in IP activities
    Integrated Agricultural Research for Development
    • .
    • Simultaneous consideration of constraints & solutions
    • Biophysical
      • Productivity enhancement
      • Sustainable NRM
    • Socio-economic
      • Market & Product development
      • Enabling Policy & Institutional arrangements
  • 7. IAR4D Implementation framework Policy Formulation of byelaws Taking advantage of policy environment Policy analysis Dialogue initiation Conflicts resolution Watershed management Soil erosion control (Dem&exp) Water quality NRM Productivity Introd. of improved Varieties (maize, sorghum, beans Pest & Diseases ISFM options (Inorg & org fertiliser, bio-fertiliser) Certification Capacity building Post harvest handling Enterprise diversification Market Link to financial institutions: Markert Information Market organization Facilitation Research MECREGO, HUNTEX, BPR Value addition Mamera, Kasisksi Road
  • 8. Initial Plan
    • Inception - 3 Projects (entry points)
      • Productivity
      • NRM
      • Market
          • Policy - Cutting across
    • Integration of 3 projects into one programme
    • Establishing partnerships
  • 10.
    • Research questions:
    Proof of concept
  • 11. Innovation Platform A coalition, or partnership of public and private stakeholders in agriculture, including policy makers, technologies and co-ordination processes to interact to generate innovative solutions to challenges
  • 12. Site selection process
    • Census of the sub-counties, secteurs and groupements
    • Definition of low and high market access
    • Modelling of market access
    • Identification of candidate sites
    • Develop diagnostic tool for site selection
    • Appraisal of candidate sites
    • Final selection of sites
  • 13. Muvunyi-Shanga, Kituva Buzi, Kamuronja Remera, Gataraga Nyange, Gacaca Chahi, Bubare Nyakabande, Hamurwa Rugari, Jomba Kisigari, Rubare Mudende, Rwerere Bigogwe N, Bigogwe S Rubaya, Itojo Bufundi, Kayonza Selected Action and Counterfactual sites DRC Rwanda Uganda IAR4D C-factual IAR4D C-factual IAR4D C-factual Good market access Poor market access
  • 14. Selected Action and Counterfactual sites
  • 15. Process of IP formation
  • 16. IPs & their commodity value chains
    • 1. Chahi
    • 2. Bufundi
    • 3. Bubare
    • 4. Ntungamo
    • 5. Gataraga
    • 6. Mudende
    • 7. Remera
    • 8. Rwerere
    • 9. Buuma
    • 10. Maendeleo
    • 11. Musanganya
    • 12. Muungano
    • Irish potatoes
    • Irish potatoes
    • Sorghum
    • Organic pineapples
    • Irish potatoes
    • Milk
    • Common & snap beans
    • Horticulture – Chillies
    • Cassava
    • Beans
    • Bananas
    • Irish potatoes
  • 17. Task Force, IPs, and Value Chain
  • 18. Identified Issues
    • Disorganized markets and marketing
    • Lack of clean seed/planting materials (potato, sorghum, pineapple, cassava, banana)
    • Low productivity, declining fertility and low utilization of fertilizers
    • Poor post harvest handling and limited value addition
    • Weak, unsupportive and lowly implemented policies
    • Low product base and Low profitability
    • Consumer acceptability of the available potato vis-à-vis farmer preferred cultivar.
  • 19. IP constraint, interface issues and proposed action Country and IP Interface challenge Partners Innovations Outcomes Rwanda, Gataraga Irish Potato IP Market-Technology-Policy interface of low productivity price, poor harvest & postharvest handling procedures Farmers (famers groups), Private sector (niche markets, input dealers, microfinance, SACCO, traders), Policy makers (local authorities), Researchers (ISAR, ISAE, NUR, CIAT), extension workers (Imbaraga) Value addition (potato washing, sorting, grading, and packaging in woven sacks and bags made out of banana fibres; Rapid multiplication, and facilitating access to planting material of market preferred variety ( Kinigi ); Dehaulming before harvest; links to credit; favourable policy environment Improved potatoes quality, increased yield, shelf life, access to niche market and increased prices and income. Farmers receive RFrw20-30/kg above going market prices
  • 20. Baseline Survey
    • IP formation and functioning
    • Linking farmers to markets (output and input)
    • Credit services
    • Training
    • Productivity (e.g. better variety, practices),
    • ISFM,
    • Markets (value chain analysis),
    • Policy analysis
    Endline Survey Indirect Observations Poor market access Good market access Action Counterfactual Action Counterfactual
  • 21. Learning Site – Institutional Innovations
    • Institutional linkages, alliance and interactions for knowledge sharing and creation
      • Evolving nature of the SSA-CP LK PLS fostered and enhanced new institutional linkages and non-linear collective and collaborative interactions, key for joint learning, innovation capacity and knowledge sharing and utilization
    • Significant and growing measure of community ownership
      • Structure the partnerships and minimizing uncertainty and likelihood of conflicts
  • 22. IP Evaluation - Uganda
  • 23. Learning Site – Lessons
    • Linkage to financial institutions (Equity, MECRECO)
    • MECRECO in DRC uses the farmer production as a collateral to increase credit loans-$5,000 loaned to Chahi IP
    • In Rwanda Action Nord –Sud projects uses Rwerere IP to increase credit loans in the area.
  • 24. Demand and Adaptation of Technology: Fertilizer use – Chahi Uganda
    • Kinigi had (P<0.05):
    • significantly more yield under all fertilizer rates
    • Potato yield increased linearly with fertilizer rate
    • the highest Leaf Area Index
    Rate of NPK Yield (t/ha)
  • 25. Technology NRM response of local sorghum to N and P fertilization
    • Treatments
    • 0 Kg DAP per acre (Control)
    • 50 Kg DAP per acre at planting and 50 kg Urea per acre
    • 100 Kg DAP per acre at planting and 100 kg Urea per acre top dressed
  • 26.
    • Technological Innovations and Value Additions
      • IP formation and multi-stakeholder alliance has built value addition and agro-processing network that strengthens the entire commodity supply chain
    Learning Site – Lessons
  • 27.  
  • 28. Benefits by producers : Milk and Potatoes Milk- about 50% increase in benefits for producers, and 20% to traders in Rwanda Potatoes- 30% increase for producers, 25% for traders in Rwanda FARA Science Week side event, SSA CP 19th-20th July 2010, OUAGADOUGOU
  • 29.
    • Learning site: Lessons
    • Increased area, yields and better price for maize :
    • Strong and sure link of Chahi IP to PHINTA investment limited led to:
      • An increase of maize yield and cultivated area
      • Held the price of maize above U.S$ 0.25 while t he price of maize in the country dropped from U.S$ 0.4 to 0.1 at harvest .
  • 30. Individual Institutional Inter- Institutional (Networking) Public goods Changes in outlook on core mandates in light of networking New skills- teamwork; facilitation; Communication; conflict resolutions Faster product and enterprise development: Mamera -sorghum porridge, Kasikisi juice and wine, Decision Support Tool, Potatoes / Bean; Central facilitating body Identification of more acceptable solutions to complex problems e.g. linkage to markets, re-introduction of Kinigi potato variety in Rwanda and acceptance of hitherto rejected Victoria in Uganda IAR4D Outcomes
  • 31.
    • Empowers communities to demand services, participation, ownership and sustainable change
    • Innovation Platforms –institutions (including financial and processors) established and maintains relevant, effective and efficient partnerships
    • Enhance synergies between institutions within activities for effective delivery of targets
    • Efficient allocation of local/institutional/regional resources and services-avoids unnecessary competition, duplication and wastage
    Reflections on IAR4D Approach
  • 32.
    • Successful IAR4D requires a functional and efficient linkages system (CPU) of partners and actors to address dynamic facilitation and research issues
    • Good indications of the benefits / process impacts
    • Initiating limited scaling up and out
    • Final analytical evidence of the performance of IAR4D approach to be established
    Conclusions and way forward
  • 33. Thank You