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van Rikxoort - Building 'climate smart' East African coffee production systems

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda,......

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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  • 1. Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems Kigali, Rwanda – 24 October 2011Henk van Rikxoort, Laurence Jassogne, Peter Läderach, Piet van Asten
  • 2. AGENDA Opportunities for East African coffee Challenges for East African coffee Classification for East African coffee 1 – Yield 2 – Adaptive capacity 3 – Carbon footprint Institutional landscape Conclusions 2 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 3. OPPORTUNITIES FOR COFFEE Coffee constitutes a large proportion of both GDP and exports share in East African countries Coffee here is predominantly produced by smallholders  AFDB (2010)  ICO (2011) 3 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 4. NEED FOR ADAPTATION  Läderach et al. (2010)4 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 5. NEED FOR MITIGATION Increasing consumer demand for products which emit fewer GHG emissions Retailers, the private sector and certification bodies start to address GHG emissions in coffee supply chains  Retailers  Certification bodies 5 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION FOR EAST AFRICAN COFFEE Unshaded Unshaded monoculture monocultureEstates Coffee – Shaded banana Smallholder farming monoculture intercrop Coffee – tree system Coffee garden Wild coffee 6 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 7. YIELD 1: Arabica x banana 4000 Unshaded (Uganda) 2: Arabica x banana Shaded (Uganda) 3000 3: Robusta x banana Shaded (Uganda)yield (kg/ha) 2000 4: Arabica monocrop Unshaded (Kenya) 5: Arabica monocrop Unshaded (Uganda) 1000 6: Arabica monocrop Shaded (Uganda) 7: Robusta monocrop 0 Shaded (Uganda) 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 coffee system 7 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 8. ADAPTIVE CAPACITY  Shading Intercropping 8 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 9. CARBON FOOTPRINT Carbon footprint per unit product 12 11 Sum = 9.2 10 Sum = 9.4 9 Pesticide production 8kg CO2-e/kg-1 parchment coffee Sum = 3.7 Gas use 7 Sum = 3.9 Diesel use 6 Electricity use 5 Off-farm transport 4 Crop residue managment 3 Waste water production 2 Fertiliser induced N2O 1 Fertiliser production 0 C sequestration in trees -1 Trad-po Com-poly Shad-m ly ono Unshad-mono -2 -3 -4 9 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 10. INSTITUTIONAL LANDSCAPEGovernments Need for policies that support climate smart coffee production systemsResearch and extension More research attention needed for systems rather than single cropsPrivate sector Involvement of private sector needed in addressing climate change in coffee supply chains 10 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 11. CONCLUSIONS Global trends indicate that adapting to and mitigating climate change will be key for coffee production systems to be effective in the future Coffee in East Africa is produced in different systems with different characteristics and benefits Climate smart systems use intercropping with other food crops and shading to combine adaptation and mitigation Support from governments, research institutes and the private sector is needed to promote and implement these climate smart systems in the region 11 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems
  • 12. THANK YOUInternational Institute for Tropical Agriculture(IITA)Coffee – Banana Intercropping TeamInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture(CIAT)Decision and Policy Analysis Program (DAPA)Wageningen University and Research Centre(WUR)Plant Research International (PRI)Henk van RikxoortE-mail: henk.vanrikxoort@wur.nlLaurence JassogneE-mail: ljassogne@gmail.com12 Building “climate smart” East African coffee production systems