Early Interventions - Anne Longfield, OBE, Chief Executive, 4Children


Published on

CHYPS, Convnetion, Early Intervention

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Communities That Care (2002) international research evidence on the relationship between key youth risk factors and 4 problem behaviours associated with children as they get older
  • NotesInterestingly, the risk factors across the family domain focus predominantly on issues around parental supervision and discipline, behaviour management and family conflict. Low income and poor housing are also strong risk factors (Youth Justice Board, 2005), but their effects can be moderated by strong parental supervision and discipline (as may be the case amongst some low income ethnic minority communities in the UK). Poor parental supervision appears to increase the risk of delinquency, and there are many studies that have shown that parents who are unaware of where their children are from an early age tend to have delinquent children (McCord, 1979). In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (with 400 males), 55% of those experiencing poor parental supervision at age 8 were convicted compared with 32% of the remaining group (Farrington and Welsh, 2007).Similarly, behaviour problems (disruptive and delinquent child behaviour) can begin as early as age 3 amongst children (see Figure 1), and without behaviour management, can deteriorate to ‘authority avoidance’ (e.g. truancy, running away, staying out late etc.) by the age of 11 (Loeber et al, 1993). This does not mean that every child who manifests proactive or reactive opposition at the age of 3 will go onto to become moderate or serious delinquents, but that every young person who has committed violent crime or serious delinquency will have had symptoms of poor behaviour at a much earlier age.personal characteristics, are beyond government’s or policy makers’ control; these include being female, high intelligence, having a positive or outgoing disposition and/or a resilient temperament (Communities That Care, 2002). But other protective factors can significantly help in moderating some of the aggregate risks that young people are exposed to (see Box 1).Young men commit more offences than young women and have longer criminal careers, even when they are exposed to the same risks (Youth Justice Board, 2005).Box 1 shows that some risks (e.g. living in a deprived neighbourhood or parental separation) can be moderated by children having strong, affectionate relationships with a family member, and who have parents who take a keen interest in their education (Communities That Care, 2002). Similarly, young people who have strong relationships with teachers or adults outside of the family, who support and encourage them, are also less likely to be at risk.In addition, parents, teachers and community leaders who set clear expectations and rules, and lead by example, are also protecting children from external risks. Recognition and praise from parents, teachers and community leaders reinforces positive social behaviour. Children may also need to be taught particular social and learning skills so that they are able to solve problems and form successful relationships.
  • Early Interventions - Anne Longfield, OBE, Chief Executive, 4Children

    1. 1. Supporting Young People To Flourish Anne Longfield, Chief Executive, 4Children
    2. 2. Helping young people through life The starting point of a new and strengthened approach • A holistic approach to the needs of young people and families • A joined up approach based around the life cycle of the young person not the services • Service design that brings in help early and at all stages • Understanding and supporting young people’s high expectations and aspirations
    3. 3. Helping Young People To Flourish Mentoring Health Friends Skills Relationships Parents Self esteem Communities and families that are great for young people Early identification and help if problems arise College Un i v e r s i t y Great times Being safe Meeting people Aspirations Fun Schools Family Specialist help and turnaround if things go wrong Training Apprenticeships Resilience Jobs Horizons
    4. 4. Identifying and reducing risk factors Identifying and reducing risk factors that result in: Crime and anti-social behaviour Young people leaving formal education without qualifications (educational underachievement) Misuse of drugs, alcohol and other substances School aged pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases
    5. 5. Risk Factors Table 1: Adolescent problem behaviours and associated risks Source: Communities That Care (2002): pp.7-8 Risk Factors Family Poor parental supervision and discipline Family conflict Family history of problem behaviour Parental Involvement/attitudes condoning problem behaviour Low income and poor housing School Low achievement beginning in primary school Aggressive behaviour, including bullying Lack of commitment, including truancy School disorganisation Community Disadvantaged neighbourhood Community disorganisation and neglect Availability of drugs High turnover and lack of neighbourhood attachment Individual, friends and peers Alienation and lack of social commitment Attitudes that condone problem behaviour Early involvement in problem behaviour Friends involved in problem behaviour Drug Use Youth Crime School age pregnancy Educational underachievement √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
    6. 6. Risk Factors Communities That Care report (2005) Commissioned by UK Ministry of Justice Risk and preventative factors around youth crime in a UK context: pp. 127-128 • Family risk factors include poor parental supervision and discipline; family conflict; a family history of criminal activity; parental attitudes that condone anti-social and criminal behaviour; low income; poor housing; and large family size • These risk factors can first be identified at the prenatal and perinatal stages and persist in influence throughout childhood and adolescence. • Risk factors in the school context include low achievement beginning in primary school; aggressive behaviour (including bullying); lack of commitment to school (including truancy); and school disorganisation, all of which increase the likelihood that young people exposed to them will become involved in crime. • Within the community, the risk factors identified by research are living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood; community disorganisation and neglect; availability of drugs; and high turnover and lack of neighbourhood attachment.
    7. 7. Risk Factors Diagram: Youth focused systems approach Source: Australian Government Department of Health (2004)
    8. 8. Risk factors combine to reduce chances • Risk factors that predict youth offending and substance abuse are the same as those that predict educational underachievement, teenage parenthood and adolescent mental health problems • For many children from deprived backgrounds, multiple risk factors cluster together, making them between five and twenty times more likely to become violent and serious offenders • Certain childhood experiences, such as abuse by adults, may also mean children are more likely to leave school without qualifications; become unemployed and young parents; and commit offences resulting in a prison sentence • Some risk factors are both symptoms and causes; anti-social behaviour amongst young people, for example, can be both a cause and a consequence of heavy alcohol consumption
    9. 9. Protective factors linked to positive outcomes • Strong bonds with family, friends and teachers • Positive standards set by parents, teachers and community leaders • Opportunities for involvement in families, schools and the community • Social and learning skills to enable participation and devise solutions (confidence and resilience) • Recognition and praise for positive behaviour
    10. 10. Early Intervention • Early (effective) family-based interventions • Warm and supportive parents and relationship skills (between parents) are likely to go a significant way to help moderate the negative effects of other risk factors amongst children (e.g. low family income; poor housing) • Early attachment and support in the first 3 years set children up for life • Intervention at key points of risk - including early years, transition etc • Interventions that focus on strong (clear parenting role) parenting to manage poor behaviour • Parenting classes for parents of teenagers - learning to listen, empathise and set boundaries
    11. 11. Why community based provision? • The ability to bring services together to undertake preventative work: Links with Troubled Families teams and Health Visitors already doing outreach work; providing advice and information; linking with social services and undertaking multi-agency work • A neutral location for all young people and no stigma • A trusting relationship with young people and families - particularly important to identifying needs and responses • Broad and ongoing, enabling support for young people and families, which can be adapted/targeted to help young people/parents with additional problems • There are already many examples of good practice and many are already gearing up for Early Intervention
    12. 12. Targeted turnaround help before crisis • • • • • • Identification of needs Lead worker over a period of time Intensive support and challenge - trust Strengths based and empowering Problem solving and risk reducing Long term support through community based services
    13. 13. The Task – System and attitude change for young people • Make young people and their families a top local priority • Turn services inside out and join together • Improve our understanding of the evidence and what works • Improve understanding, skills and abilities on how we work with young people and families - taking a whole family, strength based approach • Create the environmental conditions to enable prevention, early intervention and youth and family support to thrive – leadership, professional motivations and skills, funding, collaboration • Move away from reacting and assessing • Improve the inter-professional respect of young people, families and each other
    14. 14. The building blocks to making it happen The potential to lead and support change for young people, families and communities
    15. 15. Anne Longfield Anne.Longfield@4children.org.uk www.4Children.org.uk