Basic elements of electricityo Conductors - keep loose grip on their electrons and allow electrons to move freely. Metals are usually good conductors.o Insulators - keep close hold of their electrons and do not allow free movement of electrons. Glass, wood, plastic, mica, fiberglass and air are good insulators
Current & Resistance CURRENT RESISTANCEThe flow of electrons Opposition to the flow of electrons in an electronic within an electronic circuit. circuit. Measured in OhmsMeasured in AmperesElectronic symbol – I Electronic symbol – RAlso known as amps. Also represented by Omega
Voltage & Power VOLTAGE POWERThe potential, or The measure of the ability pushing power, of of an electronic circuit to electricity available to accomplish a task. a circuit.Measured in Volts Measured in WattsElectronic symbol – E Electronic symbol – PAlso symbolized as V Also symbolized as W
Ohm’s Law • Ohm’s Law relates Current (I), Voltage (E) and Resistance (R)• The relationship can be written three ways: »E=IxR »I=E/R » R = E/I
Introduction to Passive componentsDef: Which does not have any internalcapacity to change energy format fromone form to another .Resistor Capacitor Inductor
Resistor & DefinitionRESISTANCE : OPPOSITION TO THEFLOW OF ELECTRONS THROUGH ACONDUCTORAll materials exhibit some resistance, eventhe best of conductorsUNIT OF RESISTANCE IS OHM(S) ΩTWO PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITHRESISTORS -RESISTANCE VALUE INOHMSPOWER HANDLING CAPABILITIES INWATTS
Resistor Family Tree RESISTORS LEADED SMT CARBON FILM+/-5%GENERAL METAL THICK FILMPURPOSE FILM +/-1% Metal Oxide +/-1% THIN FILM HIGHER PERFORMANCE Film +/-5% GENERAL PURPOSE WIREWOUND >2W HIGH POWER <+/-1% HIGH POWER SPECIAL 8
Definition & Symbol• A device that stores energy in electric field.• Two conductive plates separated by a non conductive material.• Electrons accumulate on one plate forcing electrons away from the other plate leaving a net positive charge.• Think of a capacitor as very small, temporary storage battery.
Properties & Types• A capacitor blocks the passage of DC current.• A capacitor passes AC current.• Unit of Capacitance is Faraday’s.• Value of the capacitance is given by its valueand the max voltage which can be safely appliedto it which is know as – working voltage ( WVDC)Symbol for FIXED :Symbol for Variable :
Capacitor Family Tree CAPACITORS ELECTROSTATIC ELECTROLYTICCERAMIC FILM ALUMINUM TANTALUM • Non polarized • Polarized • AC or DC operation • DC operation • Lower Capacitance • Higher Capacitance 18
Markets CAPACITORS ELECTROSTATIC ELECTROLYTIC CERAMIC FILM ALUMINUM TANTALUM Biggest market Large Cap at low cost Lowest Cost SMT increasing LT 1206 Long LT Price flat on TH 0603 & 0402 good choices Large Cap in Small Sizes Better performance at higher cost Long LT SMT longer LT Price Increases on C/ D/ E sizes 19
Polarized CapacitorOne lead is positive and other isnegative markedBasic Types of polarized Capacitor :• Electrolytic Capacitor• Tantalum Capacitor• Can CapacitorTypes of Electrolytic Capacitor• Radial• Axial
AVAILABLE RANGE & APPLICATIONFOR ELECTROLYTIC CAP: 1 TO 68,000 µFFOR TANTALUM ELECTROLYTICCAPACITOR : 1 TO 470 µFAREA OF APPLICATION: TIMER CKT,DECOUPLING CAPS, FEED BACK CIRCUITS,PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS
Non Polarized MylarCeramicdisk Common capacitance ranges are: Micro - - 10-6Monolithicceramic Nano - n - 10-9 Styroflex Pico - p - 10-12Dippedsilver-mica Types of Dielectric used : Paper, Ceramic, Glass, Mica, Polyester, MylarMylar
Ceramic Disc Capacitor (Radial) Conversion Tables : 101 = 0.0001 µf Cap Tolerance C = +/-.25pF K = +/-10% D = +/-.5pF M = +/-20% F = +/-1% Z = +80%/-20% 102 = 0.001µf Dielectric G = +/-2% Y5F J = +/-5% DielectricCap Value Y5P102 = 1000pF 103 = 0.01µf 104 = 0.1µf Cap ValueVoltage 103 = 0.01uF1KV = 1000VDC 105 = 1 µf Voltage 1KV = 1000VDC 106 = 10 µf Example shown Example shown P/N: NCD103K1KVY5PTR 23 P/N: NCD102K1KVY5F
VARIABLE CAPACITOR is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically or electronically. Types of variable capacitor : • Trimmer • Gang CapacitorUsed in: Impedance Matching for Antenna RF Tuning Circuits Radios High Powered Transmitter
InductorsDef: An inductor is a coil of wirethrough which electrons move, andenergy is stored in the resultingmagnetic field. Inductors store energy in a magnetic field, not an electric field. When the source of electrons is removed, the magnetic field collapses immediately. Inductance is Measured in Henry
Types of InductorMolded inductor & air-wound Air wound inductor Iron powder Toroidal inductorinductor Ferrite core Toroidal Adjustable air-wound inductortransformer Variable Inductor Torroid c oil Variable
Factors influencing inductance• The amount of inductance is influenced by a number of factors : – Number of coil turns. – Diameter of coil. – Spacing between turns. – Size of the wire used. – Type of material inside the coil.
Applications• Resonant Circuits• Tuned Circuits in Radio Reception & Broadcasting• Antenna• Electric Transmission• Filter in Power supplies• Energy storage devices in SMPS• Audio Frequencies
DefinitionA static device which transfer the electrical energy from primarywinding to secondary winding, works on the principle of mutualInduction.Based on the formula :Where : Vs is induced voltage in secondary winding : Vp is induced voltage in primary winding : Ns is number turns in Secondary winding : Np is number turns in Primary windingThus transformer allows only Alternating current.Basic Type of transformer are : Step Down, Step UpStep Down: When Secondary winding will be less than Primarywinding,Step Up: When Secondary winding will be more than PrimaryWinding.
Identification & TestingTypes Testing Procedure for transformer are: Cold Check & Hot checkCold Check: Without applying voltage to transformer and measuringthe resistance of each winding , then determining the Primary &Secondary Winding.Hot Check : With applying voltage transformer & measuring theoutput voltage at each windings and then determining the Primary &Secondary windings.Transformers Losses : Eddy current Losses,Hysteresis Losses,Mechanical Losses,Stray Losses
Types of transformers• Auto transformers• Audio transformers• Leakage Transformers• Resonant Transformers, IFT• Isolation transformers or Instruments Transformers• Pulse Transformers• Current Transformer•Voltage Transformer
Active ComponentsDef : which have internal capacity to change energy format from one form to another, hence require a external source, whose operation can be controlled. Dis Advantages of Vacuum Tubes : • Large Space Consumption • Large amount Heat dissipation • Power consumption is high
Introduction to semiconductors Def : material whose conductivity lies in between conductor &insulator.Commonly used to Semiconductor: Silicon, Germanium, GalliumArsenide, Boron, Antimony.Advantage of Semiconductor material :• Less space consumption• Power consumed is less• Heat dissipated is less•Low Cost
Diode & Types• A semiconductor diode is formed with pieces of N & P- type SC material are joinedThe P material is called the anode.The N material is called the cathode.The resulting structure iscalled a PN junction. In P-type semiconductor Holes are Majority Charge Carriers• A PN junction (or diode) is a switch or component In N-Type semiconductor through which electrons will Electron are Majority Charge flow easily in one direction but Carriers not in the opposite direction.
Common Symbol of Diode :Rectifier Diode :Signal / Switching Diode :Zener Diode :LightEmittingDiode :
Testing Procedure for Diode FIGURE 14–31 To check a diode, select “diode check” on a digital Multiimeter. The display will indicate the voltage drop (difference) between the meter leads. The meter itself applies a low-voltage signal(usually about 3 volts) and displays the difference on the display.(a) When the diode is forward biased, the meter should display a voltage between 0.500 and 0.700 V (500 to 700 mV).(b) When the meter leads are reversed, the meter should read OL (over limit) because the diode is reverse biased and blocking current flow.
Transistor Nos.Low Power : BC 182, BC 182c,BC 546, BC 547b, BC 548,NC 549, BC 549b, BC 639m, BF 194, BC 167.Medium Power : BC 107, BC 108, BC 108C, BC 549B,2N3053, BFY51, BC177, BC 178, BC 179, BC 477, BC 478,HC 100, BD 115, BEL 100N, CD100, 2N2955,2N29072N2222,2N2905, SK100.2N4403, 2N4125, 2N3906,High Power : TIP 29, TIP 31, Tip 31, TIP 41, 2N3055,TIP 32A, TIP 32C, BUX 84, TIP 122, TIP 127, 2N3055,KSE 13007, 13008, MJE 13007, BD246, C4313, TIP 42
Application• Switching• Amplifier• Oscillator• Comparator• Series Voltage Regulator• Sensors
Field Effect TransistorIt Contains Four leads: the Drain, Source, Two Gates or ShieldThe area between the source and drain terminals is called the channel. N- Channel FET P- Channel FETBasic Advantage of FET : High Input Impedance (Z in)
Testing Procedure• Turn Off’s: Connect –ve lead of MM to Gate & +ve lead to Source of the FET.• Turn On Condition: Connect –ve lead of MM to source & +ve lead to gate. MM should show 0L.• Verifying On: connect +ve lead to drain & -ve lead to source. MM should show .000• Turn OFF: Connect –ve lead of MM to Gate & +ve lead to Source of the FET. MM show 0L.• Verifying OFF: Connect to –ve lead to source & +ve lead to drain. MM should OL
Area Of Application• Small Signal Amplifier• Voltage Controlled Résistor• Switch• In Op-Amps
Testing ProcedureSelect High Resistance range in Ohmmeter;• Connect -ve lead of OM to emitter & +ve lead B1 , B2 one after other. OM should show Approx. High resistance on both sides.• Connect +ve lead of OM to emitter & -ve lead B1 , B2 one after another. OM should show Approx. Low resistance on both sides.
Applications• In Triggering Circuit• In relaxation oscillator• In transducer• Switching Circuits
IC Regulator• A higher end voltage regulator whose output voltage remains constant with irrespective of any Input Voltage variation.• Types of Voltage regulator :1. Fixed +ve Regulator2. Fixed -ve Regulator3. Variable RegulatorAdv: Inexpensive, versatile,Thermal shutdown, providesCurrent/Voltage boosting
Variable Regulator• Def: are those who voltage can be varied and utilized.• Advantages of adjustable voltage regulators: * improved system performance * improved overload protection *improved system reliability• Example: LM317, LM337Types of Variable regulator: Positive, Negative
Configuration & Types• The LM 317,117,338,350 is a three terminalpositive voltage regulator, which can be oper-ated with theoutput voltage regulated at any setting over therange of 1.2 V to 57 V.• The LM 337,137 series of voltage regulators are a negative adjustable voltage regulators• The three terminals are Vin, Vout and ADJUSTMENT(ADJ).• Application: Variable power supply , Switching Circuits
Integrated Circuits• An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature ,low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon.• The active components are transistors and diodes and passive components are resistors and capacitors.• There are two major kinds of IC’s:• Analog (linear) which are used as amplifiers, timers and oscillators• Digital (logic) which are used in Gates, Flip-Flop, Counters, Shift Registers, Microprocessors, Microcontrollers and Memories, DSP
Advantage of IC• Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density.• Cost reduction due to batch processing.• Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints.• Improved functional performance.• Matched devices.• Increased operating speeds.• Reduction in power consumption